Volume-3 Issue-6

  • Version
  • Download 0
  • File Size 4.00 KB
  • File Count 1
  • Create Date August 28, 2017
  • Last Updated September 4, 2017

Volume-3 Issue-6


 Download Abstract Book

S. No

Volume-3 Issue-6, January 2015, ISSN:  2277-3878 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Najafi, Issa 

Paper Title:

Electronic Trust Readiness Evaluation on B2C E-Commerce Companies

Abstract:   The E-Commerce, as to the nature of the transaction between both parties, is represented in various classifications and includes a framework of computer programs and systems that undertake services in the internet, which are search for information, exchange management, study of rating condition, provision of rating, online payment mode, summary of report and account management. These are the foundations which insure the internet organized activities, increasing the efficiency of transacting parties. For these transactions, system security must be provided and create the necessary ground for mutual trust between the parties, trust towards the system operation, as well as trust towards the relevant product, brand or service .  In social interactions, trust is referred to as social wealth. But trust in the e-commerce is a far more issue rather than social wealth and it is considered as a part of the company's assets, because without it, the ability to trade online would basically be not possible. The electronic trust(E-Trust), whose concept is the willingness of the truster (online shopper) to accept the risks and vulnerability against an internet vendor based on positive expectations about the characteristics and future behaviours of the seller, is created with difficulties for an online seller. The lifecycle of E-Trust in online transactions of type B2C has multiple stages which the first stage begins with total unawareness of the online shopper about the online seller and continues with formation, maintenance (continuance) and finally ends with vanishing. Due to the fact that gaining trust is a difficult and complex issue, its maintaining and prevention from loss has a lot of values for the online seller. In this research, by adoption from the definitions of the concept of electronic readiness, the capabilities of an e-commerce company to create, maintain, prevent from loss and ultimately, rebuild the lost trust was define as E-Trust readiness of the e-commerce company. Then after selecting an appropriate model, the extent of E-Trust readiness of 12 e-commerce companies that are active in the area of online sales of goods and services was evaluated and assessed.

   E-Trust , E-Transaction, E-Trust Readiness , Evaluation, Security


1.        Najafi , I, (2013) , “Evaluation of trust factors in management and commerce fields during electronically carried out transactions”, Dissertation presented in partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) in Information Technologies , National Agrarian University of Armenia , Publication: Yerevan, 2013 . 140 p. : Date:2013 Availability: Copies available: ANAU library [35 N-14] (1),
2.        Nielsen , Bo Bernhard, (2004), ” The Role of Trust in Collaborative Relationships:A Multi-Dimensional Approach “, M@n@gement,7(3): 239-256.

3.        Wang, Y.(2003).Trust, Procedural Justice and Decision-Making Style: A Study of Collective and Private Enterprises in the Context of China’s Reform, vol, 29..No, 12.

4.        Najafi, I. (2011). “The Role of Electronic Readiness of Countries in Increasing Reliance on E-Transactions in the Context of EG and E-Commerce”, Bulletin of State Agrarian University of Armenia, No. 3 (2011), pp. 149-152

5.        Kalyanam, K., and McIntyre, S. (2002) The Marketing Mix: A Contribution of the E-Tailing Wars, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, volume 30, issue 4, pp. 483-495

6.        Dennis C E, Fenech Tand Merrilees W(2004) The Business of E-retailing,London, Routledge.

7.        Kalyanam, K., and McIntyre, S. (2002) The Marketing Mix: A Contribution of the E-Tailing Wars, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, volume 30, issue 4, pp. 483-495

8.        Dennis C E, Fenech Tand Merrilees W(2004) The Business of E-retailing,London, Routledge.

9.        McCarthy, J (1960) Basic Marketing: A Manager ial Approach. Irwin, Homewood, IL Strauss, J &Frost, R, on the internet marketing, principles of online marketing, 1999,P139-147, P199-230

10.     Lauterborn, R (1990), "New Marketing Litany: 4Ps Passed; C words take over", Advertising Age, October, 61(41), 1990,26

11.     Pavlou PA, Gefen D., (2004), Building effective online marketplaces with institution-based trust. Information Systems Research ;15(1):37–59

12.     Lee, J.-N., & Choi, B. (2011). Effects of initial and ongoing trust in IT outsourcing: a bilateral perspective. Information & Management, 48(2), 96–105.
13.     Arafat A. Awajan ,Hasan Al-Shalabi,, Al-Bara W. Awajan,Nidhal El-Omar , 2013, "E-Business Readiness of the SMEs in Jordan", INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, Vol.4, No.3
14.     Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. The Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-734. doi:10.2307/258792

15.     Reinhard Bachmann, Akbar Zaheer, (2006), Handbook of Trust Research, Edward Elgar Publishing, P(29)

16.     Golembiewski, R. T. & McConike, M. (1975), The certainly of interpersonal trust in group process. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of group process (pp. 131-185, New York : Wiley.

17.     Deutsch, M. (1958). Trust and suspicion. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2, 265–279.

18.     Lewis, J. D. Weight. A. (1985), Trust as a social reality. Social Forces, 63(4), 967-985.

19.     Coleman J. S., (1990), Foundations of Social Theory, Harvard University Process, Cambridge, MA Das,T. K., Teng, B. S., (1998) Between Trust And Control : Developing Confidence in Partner Cooperation in Alliance, Academy of Management Review, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 491-512.






Sanjib Sengupta

Paper Title:

An Analysis on Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer Flow of Radiative Chemically Reactive Fluid past an Oscillating Plate Embedded In Porous Media in Presence of Soret Effect

Abstract:    The aim of the present paper is to analyze a basic theoretical fluid model depicting the parametric effect of the Peclet numbers on a two dimensional chemically reactive heat and mass transfer flow past an oscillating plate with Soret and first order chemical reaction effects. Rosseland radiative heat flux model is considered in the energy equation. The plate surface is considered to be permeable. Fouriers and Ficks empirical laws are used to quantify the constant heat and mass fluxes on the plate surface. The resulting system of partial differential equations with a set of favorable boundary conditions is first non-dimensionalized and then transform to a set of ordinary differential equations by using a set of normalized mode of transformations. Finally, the results are validating numerically through graphs and tables.

 Chemical reaction, Heat and Mass transfer,Soret effect, Thermal radiation, Peclet numbers.


1.        R. D. Cess, “The Interaction of Thermal Radiation with Free Convection Heat Transfer” Int. J. Heat Mass Trans., vol. 9, 1966, pp.269-277.
2.        V.M. Soundalgekar, and H.S. Takhar, “Radiation effects on free convection flow past a semi-infinite vertical plate”, Modeling, measurement and control, vol. B51, 1993, pp.31-40.

3.        S. Sengupta and M. Sen, “Free convective heat and mass transfer flow past an oscillating plate with heat generation, thermal radiation and thermo-diffusion effects”, JP J. of heat and mass transfer, vol. 8(2), 2013, pp.187-210.

4.        H.S Takhar, A.J Chamkha and G. Nath, “Flow and mass transfer on a stretching sheet with a magnetic field and chemically reactive species”, Int J Eng Sci, vol. 38, 2000, pp.1303–1314.

5.        R. Kandasamy, , K. Periasamy, , P. K.K Sivagnana, “Effects of chemical reaction, heat and mass transfer along a wedge with heat source and concentration in the presence of suction or injection” Int J Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 48(7), 2006, pp.1388–1394.

6.        S. Sengupta, “Effects of Chemical Reaction and Thermal Diffusion on Mixed ConvectiveMass Transfer Flow in Permeable Media with Heat Generation/Absorption”, InternationalJournal of Scientific Engineering and Technology (IJSET), vol. 3 (7), 2014, pp.894-898.

7.        S. Sengupta, “An exact analysis on transient radiative chemically reactive flow in porous media with Soret effect”, Elixir Applied Mathematics, vol. 73, 2014,  pp.26049-26054.

8.        S. Renuka, , N. Kishan, and A. J. Rao, (): Finite difference solution of unsteady MHD free convective mass transfer flow past an infinite vertical porous plate with variable suction and Soret effect, International Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, vol. 3, 2009, pp.43- 50.

9.        M. A. Sattar, and M. Ferdows, (): A new class of similarity solutions of an unsteady  Electrically conducting free-forced convective flow in a vertical porous surface with   Dufour and Soret effects, Chemical engineering communications, vol. 198 (9), 2011, pp.1146-1167.
10.     N. Ahmed, S. Sengupta and D. Datta, “An exact analysis for MHD free convection mass transfer flow past an oscillating plate embedded in a porous medium with Soret effect”, Chem. Eng. Comm., vol. 200, 2013, pp.494–51.
11.     S. Sengupta, N. Ahmed, “MHD free convective chemically reactive flow of a dissipative fluid with thermal diffusion, fluctuating wall temperature andconcentrations in velocity slip regime”, Int. J. of Appl. Math and Mech., vol. 10 (4), 2014, pp. 27-54.

12.     S. Sengupta,” Effects of Chemical Reaction and Thermal Diffusion on Mixed ConvectiveMass Transfer Flow in Permeable Media with Heat Generation/Absorption”, InternationalJournal of Scientific Engineering and Technology (IJSET), 3 (7), 2014, 894-898.






Kishore Ajay Kumar Ayyala

Paper Title:

A Pico Blaze-Based Embedded System for Monitoring Applications

Abstract:     Pico Blaze is an 8-bit soft core microprocessor developed by Xilinx that can be synthesized in some FPGA families. This paper presents a set of peripherals that have been developed to interface with Pico Blaze: VGA control, serial communication, PS/2 keyboard port and LCD control. To demonstrate its capabilities, the system has been implemented in a FPGA board and some typical control and monitoring systems have been developed. The design approach of the peripherals and details of the integration of the systems are explained.

   The project aims at making the monitoring system by using Pico Blaze soft-core processor, connected the peripheral blocks and transducers are controlees the monitoring system based on user requirement.


1.     M. Keating and P. Bricaud, Reuse Methodology Manual for System-on-a-Chip Designs, Springer, 2002.
2.     Diligent Inc. website: www.digilentinc.com

3.     Pico Blaze website: www.xilinx.com/products/ipcenter/ picoblaze-S3-V2-Pro.htm

4.     Pico Blaze reference manual

5.     Spartan-3 FPGA board reference manual

6.     Xilinx ISE available at www.xilinx.com/ise

7.     D. Antonio-Torres et al. “FPGA Specification of a PDA”, pp. 235-239, CERMA 2008






Priya A. Jha, Ashish G. Patel

Paper Title:

LVRT Characteristic of Scigwind Turbine System by Incorporating PMSG using Matlab/Simulink

Abstract:      The squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) is the fixed speed turbine generator. Though, it is used because of its some advantages, it suffer greatly to meet the requirement of new wind farm grid code, due to dependency on reactive power.  In this paper, the   permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind farm is incorporate with squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) wind farm, for achieving the optimal performance and some benefits. The permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) can support the reactive power of SCIG wind turbine as well as recover the voltage at the PCC point during the grid fault. The DC link boost chopper is connected with grid side inverter and it boost up the voltage during the grid fault. As well as it improves it can improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability of squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) based wind farms.    

    Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator, Squirrel Cage Induction Generator, Low Voltage Ride through, Voltage recovery, Reactive Power Compensation, Wind turbine, DC link boost chopper.


1.     S.M. Muyeen, R. Takahashi, T. Murata, J. Tamura, M.H. Ali, Y.Matsumura, A. Kuwayama and T. Matsumoto, “Low voltage ride through capability enhancement of wind turbine generator system during network disturbance,” IET Renewable Power Generation, vol. 3, n°1, pp.65-74, 2009.
2.     M.J. Hossain, H.R. Pota, V.A. Ugrinovskii and R.A. Ramos, “Simultaneous STATCOM and pitch angle control for improved LVRT capability of fixed-speed wind turbines,” IEEE. Trans. Sustainable Energy, vol. 1, n°3, pp. 142-151, October 2010.hal-00926249

3.     S. Samanvorakij, P. Kumkratug Modeling and Simulation PMSG based on Wind Energy Conversion System, AEEE 2013.

4.     G.D. Marques and D.M. Sousa, “Understanding the doubly fed induction generator during voltage dips,” IEEE. Trans. Energy Conversion, vol.27, n°2, pp. 421-431, June 2012.

5.     F. Díaz-González, A. Sumper, O. Gomis-Bellmunt and R. Villafáfila-Robles, “A review of energy storage technologies for wind power applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 16, n°4,pp. 2154-2171, May 2012.

6.     P.S. Flannery and G. Venkataramanan, “A fault tolerant doubly fed induction generator wind turbine using a parallel grid side rectifier and series grid side converter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 23, n°3,pp. 1126-1135, May 2008.
7.     “Low-Voltage Ride-Through Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines:State-of-the-Art Review and Future Trends” BY Marwa Ezzat, Mohamed Benbouzid, S.M. Muyeen and Lennart Harnefors.
8.     D. Hansen and L. H. Hansen, “Wind turbine concept market penetration over 10years (1995–2004)”, Wind Energy, vol. 10, no. 1, (2007), pp. 81–97.

9.     M. Stiebler, “Wind Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation”, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, (2008).






Bhanu Prasad D. N, Yathin Kumar L, Rakshith M

Paper Title:

Stirling Engine Powered Fan

Abstract:    This project was set out to explore the probability of designing a cooling device using Stirling engine. This would include research, design and fabrication. Stirling engines would run on different sources of sufficient external heat to generate the desired motion.Our target beneficiaries would be rural areas of people living in the marginalized areas with little hope of getting access to electricity. The success of this project would afford these people a chance to have a reliable cooling device their homes.

Stirling engine; renewable energy; basic cycle


1.     Eason, B. Noble, and I.N. Sneddon, “On certain integrals of Lipschitz-Hankel type involving products of Bessel functions,” Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. A247, pp. 529-551, April 1955. (references)
2.     J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp.68-73.

3.     I.S. Jacobs and C.P. Bean, “Fine particles, thin films and exchange anisotropy,” in Magnetism, vol. III, G.T. Rado and H. Suhl, Eds. New York: Academic, 1963, pp. 271-350.

4.     K. Elissa, “Title of paper if known,” unpublished.

5.     R. Nicole, “Title of paper with only first word capitalized,” J. Name Stand. Abbrev., in press.

6.     Y. Yorozu, M. Hirano, K. Oka, and Y. Tagawa, “Electron spectroscopy studies on magneto-optical media and plastic substrate interface,” IEEE Transl. J. Magn. Japan, vol. 2, pp. 740-741, August 1987 [Digests 9th Annual Conf. Magnetics Japan, p. 301, 1982]..






Pradnya Kamble, Dixit Jain, Mehul Jain, Vrushab Jain, Sohil Mehta

Paper Title:

LTE Network Coverage Area

Abstract:     Due to the advancement of telecommunication platform, users are now demanding new applications such as Online Gaming, mobile TV, Web 2.0, and to meet this requirement operators needed to design more flexible network. For the implementation of  this  network, the  3rd  Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) started working on  Long Term Evolution (LTE)  and  proposed  a  system  which  has  larger bandwidths, low latency and packet optimized radio access technology. The answer to the bandwidth hungry wireless applications was LTE with its distinct access technology Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA).With OFDMA as  the  radio  access  Technology, LTE has very promising features, like bandwidth scalability and both FDD and TDD duplexing methods. The major challenge in LTE is offering a greater coverage by providing higher data rates over wider areas. The changes and contributions of LTE make sure that the users are able to request and use more mobile applications like interactive TV, mobile video blogging, advanced games or professional services. The transition of LTE i.e from the 3rd generation (3G) to the 4th generation (4G), has achieved great capacity and high speed of mobile telephone networks.

 Cell radius, Coverage, LTE.


1.        “3GPP webpage for LTE Overview,” 3rd Generation Partnership Project, viewed on 17.11.07, available at http://www.3gpp.org/Highlights/LTE/LTE.htm.
2.        3GPP TS 36.101: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception". Version 8.7.0 Release 8, 2009.

3.        3GPP Technical Specification, “Base Station (BS) Radio Transmission and Reception (Release 8) ‟, www.3gpp.org.

4.        Long Term Evolution (LTE): A Technical Overview Technical White paper by Motorola.






Indira Priyadarsini, M. V. S. Murali Krishna, E. Nirmala Devi

Paper Title:

Study of Impact of Spark Timing and Compression Ratio on Performance of SI Engine

Abstract:   The improvement of performance characteristics of gasoline engine study is needed as automobile series of development has been changing rapidly. This work enhanced the importance of design variables of I.C. engine for better performance with fewer emissions. The spark timing and compression ratio are the two important design variables to deal with for effective performance of engine. This paper presents the effects of spark timing and compression ratio on the performance of a four stroke single-cylinder spark ignition engine. The study evaluated results of research in the area of spark ignition engine and is assessed by studying its performance characteristics relative to find the optimum. Experiments were conducted at different ST of 200 to 300 BTDC and CR of 3.5 to 9. The results have shown that performance parameters: brake thermal efficiency and volumetric efficiency increased for advanced timing. Specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature decreased with earlier timing before top dead centre. The peak pressure increases with increasing spark advance. The increased compression ratio results increased BTE and EGT increased and then decreased. BSFC decreased with increased compression ratio. The engine for tests used was variable compression ratio engine with adjustable dome head with wheel. The setup is running at constant speed of 3000rpm with water cooling system. The purpose of spark advance mechanism is to assure that under every condition of engine operation, ignition takes place at the most favourable instant in time. Increasing the compression ratio below detonating values to improve on the performance is another choice of variable.

 Compression Ratio, Four Stroke, Performance, Spark Timing.


1.    .B. Heywood, “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals”, McGraw-Hill Series in Mechanical Engineering
2.    J. Zareei & A. H. Kakaee “Study and the effects of ignition timing on gasoline engine performance and emissions”, Eur. Transp. Res. Rev. (2013) 5:109–116 DOI 10.1007/s12544-013-0099-8

3.    Golcu M, Sekmen Y, Salman MS (2005) “Artificial neural-network based modeling of variable valve-timing in a spark-ignition engine”. Applied Energy 81:187–197
4.    Munde Gopal G. , Dr. Dalu Rajendra S, “Experimental Study on SI Engine At Different Ignition Timing Using CNG And Gasoline-20% n Butanol Blend”IJETAE (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013)
5.    Syed Yousufuddin, K. Venkateswarlu and Naseeb Khan, “Effect of Ignition Timing and Equivalence Ratio on the Performance of an Engine Running at Various Speeds Fuelled with Gasoline and Natural Gas”, International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology Vol. 43, June, 2012

6.    Ioannis Gravalos, Dimitrios Moshou, Theodoros Gialamas1 “Performance and Emission Characteristics of Spark IgnitionEngine Fuelled with Ethanol and Methanol Gasoline Blended Fuels” Technological Educational Institute of Larissa, Faculty of Agricultural Technology Department of Biosystems Engineering, Larissa, Aristotle University, School of Agriculture, Department of Hydraulics Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, Thessaloniki, Greece

7.    Liu Shenghua, Eddy R. Cuty Clemente, Hu Tiegang,Wei Yanjv  “Study of spark ignition engine fueled with methanol/gasoline fuel blends”, Applied thermal engineering, Science direct, 27, 2007, 1904-1910

8.    Jovan Ž. DORIĆ, Ivan J. KLINAR  “Efficiency of a new IC engine concept with variable piston Motion”

9.    Ibrahim Thamer Nazzal, “ Experimental study of gasoline-alcohol blends on performance of internal combustion engine”, European Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 1450-216X Vol. 52No. 1(2011), pp.16-22






Zahra Sadat Fattahi Massoom, Zabihollah Abolghassem

Paper Title:

Active Vibration Suppression of Laminated Composite Structures Integrated with Magnetorheological Fluid Segments

Abstract:    This study exhibits synthesis of full-state LQR controllers for suppression of free and forced vibration of a cantilever plate fully and partially treated with the magneto-rheological (MR) fluid. The governing equations of motion of the three layer MR sandwich composite plate are showed in the state variable form containing a function of the control magnetic field. An optimal control elaboration based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) developed to conquer the vibration of the plate under limited magnetic field intensity. The free-and forced vibration control performances of LQR control strategies are assessed for the fully as well as partially treated MR-fluid sandwich composite plates. The results demonstrate that the full-state observer-based LQR control can considerably reduce the tip deflection responses and the settling time of the free vibration oscillations. The partially-treated plate with MR-fluid concentration near the free end also yields vibration responses comparable to the fully treated plate, while the natural frequencies of the partially treated beams are considerably higher.

 composite layered plate, active vibration control, MR fluid


1.        Sh. D. Pawar, A. Utpat, “Analysis of Composite laminate for maximum stiffness, IJRTE May 2014, Vol 3, pages 60-66.
2.        A.N. Bambole, Y.M. Desai, “Hybrid-interface finite element for laminated composite and sandwich beams”. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 2007, Vol.  43, pages 1023-36.
3.        H. Charles, L.M.  Rochel Accorsi, “A new finite element for global modeling of delaminations in laminated beams”. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 1998, Vol.31,  pages 160-177.
4.        L. Shiau, Sh. Kuo, “Free vibration of thermally buckled composite sandwich plates”. Journal of vibration and acoustics 2006, Vol. 128, pages. 1-7

5.        U. Lee, J. Kim, “Spectral element modeling for the beams treated with active constrained layer damping”, Intl. J. of Solids and Struct. 2001, Vol. 38, pages. 5679-5702.

6.        G. Wang, N. M. Wereley, “Spectral finite element analysis of sandwich beams with passive constrained layer damping”, J. of Vib. and Acoustics, 2002 Vol. 124(3), pages 376-386.

7.        Jr. B F Spencer, S. Nagarajaiah, “State of the art of structural control”, Journal of Struct. Eng., 2003 , Vol. 129(7), pages. 845-856.

8.        Y. Liu, T. P. Water and M. J. Brennan, “A comparison of semi-active damping controlstrategies for vibration isolation of harmonic disturbances”, J. of Sound and Vib.,2005, Vol. 280(1-2), pages. 21-39.
9.        H See, “Advances in electro-rheological fluids: Materials, modeling and applications”,Journal  of Indust. and Eng. Chemistry, 2004,Vol. 10(7), pages1132-1145.
10.     G. Z. Yao, F. F. Yap, G. Chen, W. H. Li and S. H. Yeo, “MR damper and its application for semi-active control of vehicle suspension system, Mechatronics”, 2002, Vol. 12(7), pages. 963-973.

11.     Y . Ahn, B. Yang, M. Ahmadian  and S. Morishita, 2005, “A Small sized variable damping mount using magnetorheological fluid” Journal Intell. Mater. Sys. Struct., 2005, Vol. 16(2), pages. 127-133.

12.     T. Pranoto, K. Nagaya, and A. Hosoda, “Vibration suppression of plate using linear MR fluid passive damper”, J. of Sound and Vib., 2004, Vol. 276 (3-5), pages. 919-932.

13.     V. Rajamohan, S. Rakheja and R. Sedaghati, “Vibration analysis of a partially treated multi- layer beam with magnetorheological fluid”, Journal of Sound and Vib., 2010, Vol. 329(17), pages 3451-3469.

14.     V. N. Lara-Prieto, R. Parkin, M. Jackson, V. Silberschmidt  and Z. Kesy,  “Vibration characteristics of MR cantilever sandwich beams: Experimental study”, Smart Mater. And struct., 2010, Vol. 19(1), pages 015-005 (9pp).

15.     M. Yaqoob Yasin, N. Ahmad, M. Naushad Alam, “Finite Element analysis of actively controlled smart plates with patched actuators and sensors”. Latin Journal of Solids and Structures, 2010, Vol. 7.

16.     R. Alkhatib and M. F. Golnaraghi. “Active structural vibration control: a review”. Shock and Vibration Digest, 2003, Vol. 35(5), pages 367–383

17.     K. R. Kumar and S. Narayanan, “The optimal location of piezoelectric actuators and sensors for vibration control of plates” Smart Materials and Structures, 2007, Vol.16 pages 2680–2691

18.     S. Narayanan and V. Balamurugan, “Finite element modelling of piezo laminated smart structures for active vibration control with distributed sensors and actuators”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2003, Vol. 262, pages 529–562

19.     Zabihollah, R. Sedagahti, and R. Ganesan, “Active vibration suppression of smart laminated beams using layerwise theory and an optimal control strategy”, Smart Materials and Structures, 2007, Vol.16, pages 2190–2201.

20.     M. Sadri, J. R. Wright and R. J. Wynne, “Modelling and optimal placement of piezoelectric actuators in isotropic plates using genetic algorithm”, Smart Mater. and Struct., 1999, Vol. 8(4), pages 490-498.

21.     Q. Hu and G.  Ma, “Variable structure control and active vibration suppression of flexible spacecraft during attitude maneuver”, Aerospace Science and Tech.,2005, Vol. 9(4), pages 307-317.

22.     W.H. Li, G. Chen, S. Yeo, “Viscoelastic properties of MR fluids”, Smart Materials and Structures, 1999, Vol. 8 pages 460–468

23.     Y. T. Choi, N. M. Wereley and Y. S. Jeon, “Semi-active vibration isolation using magnetorheological isolators”, Journal of Aircraft, 2005, Vol. 42 (5), pages1244-1251.

24.     F.D.Goncalves, J.H.Koo, M.Ahmadian, “A review of the state of the art in magnetorheological fluid technologies—part I: MR fluid and MR fluid models”, The Shock and Vibration Digest, 2006, Vol. 38 pages 203–219.

25.     M, Yalcintas and H. Dai, “Magnetorheological and electrorheological materials in adaptive structures and their performance comparison”, 1999, Smart Mater. and Struct., Vol 8(5), pages 560–573.

26.     D.J.Mead, S.Markus,”The forced vibration of a three-layer, damped sandwich beam with arbitrary boundary conditions”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1969, Pages163–175.

27.     V. Sethi and G. Song, “Optimal vibration control of a model frame structure using piezoelectric sensors and actuators, J. of Vib. and Contl”, 2005, Vol. 11(5), pages 671-684.

28.     W. H. Liao and D. H. Wang, “Semi-active vibration control of train suspension systems via magnetorheological dampers”, 2003, Journal  of Intell. Mater. Sys. and Struct. , Vol.14 pages161-172.

29.     G. O. Mutambara, 1999, Design and analysis of control systems, CRC press, Florida.

30.     V. Rajamohan, R. Sedaghati, S. Rakheja, “Optimal vibration control of beams with total and partial-treated MR fluid treatments”. Journal of Smart. Mater. Struct., 2011, Vol 20

31.     S.J. Dyke,  B.F. Spencer, M.K. Sain and J.D. Calrson, “An Experimental Study of MR Dampers on Seismic Protection”, Smart Materials and Structures, 1998, Vol. 7(5) pages 693-703.

32.     Z. S. Fattahi, A. Zabihollah, “Vibration of Laminated Composite Structures Integrated with Magnetorheological Fluid segments”. Journal of Modares Mechanical Engineering, 2013, Vol. 13, pages 156-160






P. K. Sinha, Rajesh Kumar

Paper Title:

Statistical Analysis to Investigate the PossibleImpact of Climate Change on Water Availability in Letaba River of South Africa

Abstract:   Global warming and changing climate is a major concern in the water availability. Letaba River in South Africa is facing reduction in water availability and this paper is an attempt to understand impact of climate change on reservoirs of Letaba River in South Africa. The Letaba River System falls within the Limpopo basin. This is subdivided into three sub-systems namely: Groot Letaba, Klein Letaba and lower Letaba. More than 20 dams are located in the Groot Letaba catchment. Most of the dams are having less water than there used to be earlier. The general perception for this change is related with the Climate change induced low precipitation and increased temperature in the river catchment. The historic climate and long term hydrology records are used for quantifying relationship between climate change and the amount of water in the Dam. The main long term hydrology parameters available in the department of water affairs on prominent rainfall stations of Letaba River catchment are temperature, stream flow and rainfall and their trend is the indicator of climate change in the Letaba River. A statistical analysis has been done to study the impact of climate change on the Letaba catchment.

 River, Climate change, Water availability, Reservoirs


1.        , T.P. 2009. Technical Report on Southern African Storm Rainfall, Republic of South Africa Department of Environmental Affairs, Branch of Scientific Services.
2.        Department of Water Affairs (DWA:2006,First edition): National Water resources Strategy.

3.        Department of Water Affairs (DWA: 2004, First edition): River System annual operating analysis.

4.        Department of Environmental Affairs(DEA:1999): The state of Environmental Report.

5.        Douben, J.K. (2009). Characteristics of River floods and Flooding: A Global Overview, 1985-2003. Journal, 59:59-521

6.        Global Humanitarian Forum (2009). Disaster Management Training Program, UNDP,

7.        Henie Stoffberg & Paul Prinsloo, UNISA, 2009: Climate Change, A guide for Corporate Nyabeza W R, 2004. Hydrological Droughts on selected catchment in Zimbabwe, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of the earth 29 (2004) pp 1173-1180

8.        South African National Strategy Document on weather patterns. (2010). Disaster Management Training Program, UNDP.

9.        Watkins, K. (2009). Effect of global warming in the 21st Century. Basingtone, UK. Palgrave Macmillan

10.     Water Wise Project (2000): Rand Water Publication, pp 96-99, South Africa.

11.     World Bank, 2003. Water Resources and Environment, Technical Note G.2 Lake Management, World Bank, Washington, DC

12.     Theron, M. (2009). Climate Change and Increase Floods in Africa: Implication for Africa’s Development.

13.     University of Venda, March 2012, Mini-dissertation by Masombuka Bougaui in partial fulfilment of B.SC Degree 






Pandav Anand, Muke Sonal, Kore Sudarshan, Sangade Komal

Paper Title:

One Click Intent Image Search

Abstract:    Web-scale image search engines (e.g. Google Image Search, Bing Image Search) mostly rely on surrounding text features. It is difficult for them to interpret users’ search intention only by query keywords and this leads to ambiguous and noisy search results which are far from satisfactory. It is important to use visual information in order to solve the ambiguity in text-based image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a novel Internet image search approach. It only requires the user to click on one query image with the minimum effort and images from a pool retrieved by text-based search are re-ranked based on both visual and textual content. Our key contribution is to capture the users’ search intention from this one-click query image.Many commercial Internet scale image search engines use only keywords as queries. Users type query keywords in the hope of finding a certain type of images. The search engine returns thousands of images ranked by the keywords extracted from the surrounding text. It is well known that text-based image search suffers from the ambiguity of query keywords. The keywords provided by users tend to be short. For example, the average query length of the to     1, 000 queries of pic search is 1.368 words, and 97% of them contain only one or two  words .  They cannot describe the content of images accurately. The search results are noisy and consist of images with quite different semantic meanings.  In order to solve the ambiguity, additional information has to be used to capture users’ search intention. One way is text-based keyword expansion, making the textual description of the query more detailed. Existing linguistically-related methods find either synonyms or other linguistic-related words from thesaurus, or find words frequently co-occurring with the query

 We do believe that adding visual information to image search is important. However, the interaction has to be as simple as possible. The absolute minimum is One-Click.


1.    F. Jing, C. Wang, Y. Yao, K. Deng, L. Zhang, and W. Ma, “Igroup: Web image search results clustering,” in Proc. ACM Multimedia, 2006.
2.    J. Cui, F. Wen, and X. Tang, “Real time google and live image search re-ranking,” in Proc. ACM Multimedia, 2008.

3.    “Intentsearch: Interactive on-line image search re-ranking,” in Proc. ACM Multimedia, 2008.

4.    “Bing image search, http://www.bing.com/images.”

5.    N. Ben-Haim, B. Babenko, and S. Belongie, “Improving web-based image search via content based clustering,” in Proc. Int’l Workshop on Semantic Learning Applications in Multimedia, 2006.

6.    R. Fergus, P. Perona, and A. Zisserman, “A visual category filter for google images,” in Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, 2004.

7.    G. Park, Y. Baek, and H. Lee, “Majority based ranking approach in web image retrieval,” in Proc. the 2nd International Conference on Image and Video Retrieval, 2003.

8.    Y. Jing and S. Baluja, “Pagerank for product image search,” in Proc. Int’l Conf. World Wide Web, 2008.

9.    W. H. Hsu, L. S. Kennedy, and S.-F. Chang, “Video search re ranking via information bottleneck principle,” in Proc. ACM Multimedia, 2006.

10. R. Datta, D. Joshi, and J. Z. Wang, “Image retrieval: Ideas, influences, and trends of the new age,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 40, pp. 1–60, 2007.






Kevin Kayani, Michael Mc Grath, Povl Larsen

Paper Title:

Strategies Employed by Australian Bricks & Mortar Travel Agents to Compete with Virtual Travel Agents

Abstract:     B&M travel agencies provide personalized travel services. Internet brought a change in their fortunes. The direct competition by Virtual Agencies intensified the competitive and related financial pressure on travel agencies. That resulted in a reduction of many travel agency businesses and their sales figures. Last few years have a seen a sudden change in the scenario and surprisingly many new travel agencies opened again and growing contrary to what was predicated earlier. There must be something more than intermediation and reinter mediation, which needed to be studied. This scenario raised many questions like why do some customers prefer B&M travel agencies? A detailed research was instigated to analyze and report on the status of the Australian B&M travel agencies now and in future. Research adopted a mixed-method approach using extensive literature reviews, email questionnaires, and interviews with the principal stakeholders –of the B&M travel agents and travelers. Results highlighted the strategies B&M travel agencies should adopt to succeed.

    Travel agency; distribution; supply chain; information computer technology, travel market, virtual agencies, airlines.


1.        Almunawar, M. N., & Anshari, M. (2014). Applying transaction cost economy to construct a strategy for travel agents in facing disintermediation threats. Journal of Internet Commerce, 13(3-4), 211-232.         
2.        Amaro, S., & Duarte, P. (2013). Online travel purchasing: A literature review. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(8), 755-785.   

3.        Athiyaman, A. Internet users' intention to purchase air travel online: an empirical investigation. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 20(4), 234-242.

4.        Barnett, M., & Standing, C. (2001). Repositioning travel agencies on the internet. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 7(2), 143-152.               

5.        Bennett, M. M., & Lai, C.-W. K. (2005). The Impact of the Internet on Travel Agencies in Taiwan. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 6(1), 8-23. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.thr.6040041

6.        Berne, C., Garcia-Gonzalez, M., & Mugica, J. (2012). How ICT shifts the power balance of tourism distribution channels. Tourism Management, 33(1), 205-214. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2011.02.004

7.        Bernstein, J., & Awe, S. C. (1999). "Wired Travellers": travel and tourism Web Sites. Reference Service Review, 27(4), 364-375.             

8.        Blanke, J., & Chiesa, T. (2013). The Travel & Tourism competitiveness report 2013: Reducing barriers to economic growth and job creation. Paper presented at the The World Economic Forum.

9.        Chen, Y. G., Chen, Z.-H., Ho, J. C., & Lee, C.-S. (2009). In-depth tourism's influences on service innovations. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 3(4), 326-336.              

10.     Cheng, S., & Cho, V. (2011). An Integrated model of employees' behavioural intention toward innovative information and communication technologies in Travel Agencies. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 35(4), 488-510.     

11.     Cheung, R., & Lam, P. (2009). How travel agency survive in e-Business world. Communications of the IBIMA, 10, 85-92.       

12.     Christodoulidou, N., Connolly, D. J., & Brewer, P. (2010). An examination of the transactional relationship between online travel agencies, travel meta sites, and suppliers. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22(7), 1048-1062.

13.     Fien, J., Calder, M., & White, C. (2012). Sustainable tourism. UNESCO.  Retrieved November 03, 2014, from http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/mods/theme_c/mod16.html

14.     Fuentes, R., & Alvarez-Suarez, A. (2012). Productivity of travel agencies in Spain: the case of Alicante. The Service Industries Journal, 32(16), 2623-2640.    

15.     Gronflaten, O. (2009). Pridicting travelers' choice of information sources and information channels. Journal of Travel Research, 48(2), 230-244.     

16.     Hassanli, N., Brown, G., & Tajzadeh-Namin, A. (2013). Tourist decision-making: selecting a travel agency in Iran. Anatolia, 24(3), 438-451.           

17.     Hatton, M. (2004). Redifining the relationships - The future of travel agencies and the global agency contact in a changing distribution system. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(2), 101-108.
18.     Hilletofth, P., & Lattila, L. (2012). Agent based decision support in the supply chain context. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 112(8), 1217-1235.     

19.     Hoffman, J. D. Emerging technologies and their impact on travel distribution. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 1(1), 95-103.       

20.     Kadic-Maglajlic, S., Arslanagic, M., & Cicic, M. (2011). Traditional Travel Agencies are not Beaten by E-Commerce: The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sustainable Tourism: Socio-Cultural, Environmental and Economics Impact, 159-168.  

21.     Kendall, K. W., & Booms, B. H. (2012). Consumer Perceptions of Travel Agencies: Communications, Images, Needs, and Expectations. Journal of Travel Research, 3(5), 32-40.           

22.     Konovalova, A. A., & Vidishcheva, E. V. (2013). Elasticity of demand in tourism and hospitality. European Journal of Economic Studies, 4(2), 84-89. doi: 10.13187/es.2013.4.84

23.     Lawton, L. J., & Weaver, D. B. (2009). Travel agency threats and opportunities: The perspective of successful owners. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 10(1), 68-92.       

24.     Lee, J. J.-Y., Sung, H. H., Defranco, A. L., & Arnold, R. A. (2005). Developing, operating, and maintaining a travel agency website: Attending to e-consumers and Internet marketing issues. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 17(2-3), 205-223.             

25.     Lin, C.-T. L. (2010). Examining e-travel sites: an empirical study in Taiwan. Online Information Review, 34(2), 205-228.        

26.     Miller, G., Rathouse, K., Scarles, C., Holmes, K., & Tribe, J. . (2010). Public understanding of

27.     sustainable tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(3), 626.     

28.     Nicolau, J. L. (2013). Direct versus indirect channels: Differentiated loss aversion in a high-involvement, non frequently purchased hedonic product. European Journal of Marketing, 47(1/2), 260-278.        

29.     Novak, J., & Schwabe, G. (2009). Designing for reintermediation in the brick-and-mortar world: Towards the travel agency of the future. Electronic Markets, 19(1), 15-29. doi: 10.1007/s12525-009-0003-5

30.     Park, S., Wang, D., & Fesenmaier, D. (2011). Assessing structure in American online purchase of travel products. Anatolia, 22(3), 401-417.

31.     Perez, S. (2012). Google acquiring Frommer’s travel brand: Zagat integration, Google+ improvements to follow. Tech Crunch. from http://techcrunch.com/2012/08/13/google-acquiring-frommers-travel-brand-more-google-improvements-likely-to-follow/

32.     Planing, P. (2014). Quantitative Research Approach Innovation Acceptance (pp. 141-247): Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden

33.     Plonsky, L., & Gass, S. (2011). Quantitative Research Methods, Study Quality, and Outcomes: The Case of Interaction Research. Language Learning, 61(2), 325
366. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2011.00640.x

34.     Prieger, J., & Heil, D. (2014). Economic Implications of e-Business for Organizations. Handbook of Strategic e-Business Management (pp. 15-53): Springer Berlin Heidelberg

35.     Priskin, J. (2001). Assessment of natural resources for nature-based tourism: the case of the Central Coast Region of Western Australia. Tourism Management, 22(6), 637-648. doi: 10.1016/S0261-5177(01)00039-5

36.     PWC. (2010). Review of consumer protection in the travel and travel related services market. Department of the Treasury, Government of Australia.

37.     Rajamma, R. K., Paswan, A. K., & Ganesh, G. (2007). Services purchased at brick and mortar versus online, and shopping motivation. Journal of Services Marketing, 21(3), 200-212.            

38.     Rajasekar, J., & Raee, M. A. (2013). An Analysis of the telecommunication industry in the Sultanate of Oman using Michael Porter's competitive strategy model. Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, 23(3), 234-259.              

39.     Roy-Morgan. (2014a). Asian-born Australians heading overseas for holidays. Roy Morgan Research.  Retrieved November 04, 2014, from

40.     Roy-Morgan. (2014b). Online travel’s new dynamic duo: Expedia and Wotif. Roy Morgan Research.  Retrieved November 04, 2014, from http://www.roymorgan.com/findings/5673-online-travels-new-dynamic-duo-expedia-wotif-201407092352

41.     Roy-Morgan. (2014c). Would you use the same travel agent twice? Roy Morgan Research.  Retrieved November 04, 2014, from http://www.roymorgan.com/findings/5764-would-you-use-same-travel-agent-twice-201409022350

42.     Sigala, M. (2007). Investigating the interne's impact on interfirm relations: Evidence from the business travel management distribution chain. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 20(3), 335-355.   

43.     Smith, K. A. (2007). Distribution channels for events: Supply and demand side perspectives. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 13(4), 321-338.          

44.     Soteriades, M. (2012). Tourism destination marketing: approaches improving effectiveness and efficiency. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 3(2),

45.     Tarofder, A. K., Marthandan, G., Mohan, A. V., & Tarofder, P. (2013). Web Technology in supply chain: an empirical investigation. Business Process Management, 19(3), 431-458.            

46.     Topolšek, D., Mrnjavac, E., & Kovačić, N. (2014). Integration of travel agencies with transport providers. Tourism Management Perspectives, 9, 14-23.         

47.     Trejos, N. (2011). Travelers turn back to travel agents. from http://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/travel/travelers-turn-back-to-travel-agents/2011/04/25/AFZcLM8F_story.html

48.     Trejos, N. (2014). Travel agents still play vital role for business travelers. from http://www.usatoday.com/story/travel/2014/01/06/not-all-travelers-want-to-be-their-own-travel-agents/4329955/

49.     Tsiotsou, R., & Ratten, V. (2010). Future research directions in tourism marketing. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 28(4), 533-544.    

50.     Value-Based-Management. (2014). Product porrfolio management: Summary of BCG model.   Retrieved October 10, 2014, from http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_bcgmatrix.html

51.     Vinod, B. (2011). The future of online travel. Journal of Revenue & Pricing Management, 10(1), 56-61. doi: 10.1057/rpm.2010.41

52.     Weinhardt, J. M., & Vancouver, J. B. (2012). Computational models and organizational psychology: Opportunities abound. Organizational Psychology Review, 2(4), 267-292. doi: 10.1177/2041386612450455

53.     Wen, I. (2012). An empirical study of an online travel purchase intention model. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(1), 18-39.  

54.     Widdowson, M. (2012). Perceptions of psychotherapy trainees of psychotherapy research. Counselling & Psychotherapy Research, 12(3), 178-186. doi: 10.1080/14733145.2012.697473

55.     Yakhlef, A. (2001). Does the Internet compete with or complement bricks and mortar bank branches. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 29(6), 272-281.       

56.     Yihu, W., Jiajia, L., Dan, Y., & Haitao, C. (2011). Research on Quantitative Method about Driver Reliability. Journal of Software (1796217X), 6(6), 1110-1116. doi:

57.     Zhang, X., Song, H., & Huang, G. Q. (2009). Tourism supply chain management: A new research agenda. Tourism Management, 30(3), 345-358.   






Ricuţa-Vasilica Dobrinoiu, Luminiţa Vişan, Silvana Dănăilă-Guidea, Andrei-Gabriel Ivan

Paper Title:

Foliar Fertilization Influence on Production Components Formation and Grains Quality for Triticosecale Witt. Variety

Abstract:      Triticale or triticosecale crop is a request of the present agriculture which resides in the exploitation of the less productive areas for wheat and maize, acid areas damaged by drought, by overwatering, poor in nutritive elements [3]. The main research direction is requested by the present and future necessity of the country to assure food safety. Global climate, energy and area crisis reveal, to the scientific society, especially to plants genetics and physiology, great difficulties in achieving new basic knowledge, applied by emphasizing, estimating and guiding of genetically - physiological mechanisms  belonging to the plants ecologic resistance and production process, respectively, for our work, to triticale [4]. The work aimed at analysing the effect of foliar fertilization on triticale crop in different vegetation pheno stages on the indicators which convey the grains quality after harvest. The works were achieved on plots in randomized blocks for MEZIN triticale variety.  We think that this topic represents a necessity for farmers in the present conditions of high  global warming, with atmospheric and soil drought, found in area with low fertile fields, which triticale crop  fully valorise them, by production gains, without an increased contribution of chemical fertilizers.  Thus, one contributes to the lowering of the negative impact of chemical substances on the soil. The experimental data were statistically processed, by variance analysis, according to the settlement method in the field, according to plots, within randomized blocks [5].

     foliar fertilization, grains quality, triticosecale, vegetation pheno-stages


1.     R.V. Dobrinoiu, M. Dumbrava, 2003 - Impact of foliar fertilization with completely soluble chemical fertilizers on winter wheat productivity and yields quality, Lucrări ştiinţifice, U.S.A.M.V.B., vol. XLVI, p. 271-277.
2.     R.V. Dobrinoiu, M. Dumbrava, 2005 - Rates of biomass accumulation in the autumn wheat under different fertilizing conditions, Lucrări  ştiinţifice, U.S.A.M.V.B., vol. XLVIII, p. 286-293.

3.     Gh. Ittu, N.N. Săulescu, M. Ittu, P. Mustăţea, 2005 - Realizări şi  perspective în ameliorarea speciei triticale în România. Lucrări ştiinţifice U.S.A.M.V.B. XLV;

4.     Gh. Ittu, N.N. Săulescu, M. Ittu, P. Mustăţea, 2006 - Rezistenţa la încolţirea în spic a germoplasmei româneşti de triticale (xTriticosecale Wittmack), Probl. Genet. Teor. Aplic. XXXVIII(1-2), 31-47;

5.     N. Saulescu, 1959 - Câmpul de experienţă. Ed. Agro-Silvică de Stat, Bucureşti, p. 223-228.





Xiao Liang, Ravil Khaybullin, Junjie Fu, Kevin Goncalves, Amy Xia, Xin Qi

Paper Title:

Genetic Code Expansion using Aminoacylated Orthogonal tRNAs in Conjunction with Aminoacyl Sulfamides

Abstract:       Re-engineering the protein synthesis apparatus is a powerful approach to expand our understanding of the central macromolecular synthesis machinery present in all cells.  In the current study, we showed that the high-affinity inhibitor—aminoacyl sulfamide significantly inhibited the activity of specific aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (aaRS), thereby creating synthetic gaps in the genetic code that can be filled with chemically aminoacylated orthogonal tRNAs. We further demonstrated the restoration of globin translation and enhancement of unnatural amino acids incorporation by biocytin-tRNAs coding for valine in the presence of Val-sulfamide.  Taken together, this study demonstrates that we can create and reprogram synthetic “gaps” in the genetic code and provides an experimental means to pursue fundamental questions relating to the construction and expansion of the genetic code to facilitate the enrichment of desired unnatural amino acid residues.

 Aminoacyl sulfamids, Aminoacylated orthogonal tRNAs, Genetic code expansion.


1.        M. Guo, X. L. Yang and P. Schimmel, "New functions of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases beyond translation", Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol., vol. 11(9), 2010, pp.668-674.
2.        M. T. Boniecki and S. A. Martinis, "Coordination of tRNA synthetase active sites for chemical fidelity", J. Biol. Chem., vol. 287(14), 2012, pp.11285-11289.

3.        M. Raina, A. Moghal, A. Kano, M. Jerums, P. D. Schnier, S. Luo, R. Deshpande, P. V. Bondarenko, H. Lin and M. Ibba, "Reduced amino acid specificity of mammalian tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase is associated with elevated mistranslation of Tyr codons", J. Biol. Chem., vol. 289(25), 2014, pp.17780-17790.

4.        T. Javahishvili, A. Manibusan, S. Srinagesh, D. Lee, S. Ensari, M. Shimazu and P. G. Schultz, "Role of tRNA orthogonality in an expanded genetic code", ACS Chem. Biol., vol. 9(4), 2014, pp.874-879.

5.        S. G. Park, P. Schimmel and S. Kim, "Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and their connections to disease", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., vol. 105(32), 2008, pp.11043-11049.

6.        J. D. Bain, C. G. Glabe, T. A. Dix, A. R. Chamberlin and E. S. Diala, "Biosynthetic site-specific incorporation of a non-natural amino-acid into a polypeptide", J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 111(20), 1989, pp.8013-8014.

7.        J. D. Bain, D. A. Wacker, E. E. Kuo and A. R. Chamberlin, "Site-specific incorporation of non-natural residues into peptides: Effect of residue structure on suppression and translation efficiencies", Tetrahedron, vol. 47(14–15), 1991, pp.2389-2400.

8.        J. Ellman, D. Mendel, S. Anthony-Cahill, C. J. Noren and P. G. Schultz, "Biosynthetic method for introducing unnatural amino acids site-specifically into proteins", Methods Enzymol., vol. 202(1991, pp.301-336.

9.        V. A. Karginov, S. V. Mamaev and S. M. Hecht, "In vitro suppression as a tool for the investigation of translation initiation", Nucleic Acids Res., vol. 25(19), 1997, pp.3912-3916.

10.     C. J. Noren, S. J. Anthony-Cahill, M. C. Griffith and P. G. Schultz, "A general method for site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins", Science, vol. 244(4901), 1989, pp.182-188.
11.     M. W. Nowak, J. P. Gallivan, S. K. Silverman, C. G. Labarca, D. A. Dougherty and H. A. Lester, "In vivo incorporation of unnatural amino acids into ion channels in Xenopus oocyte expression system", Methods Enzymol., vol. 293(1998, pp.504-529.
12.     M. W. Nowak, P. C. Kearney, J. R. Sampson, M. E. Saks, C. G. Labarca, S. K. Silverman, W. Zhong, J. Thorson, J. N. Abelson, N. Davidson and et al., "Nicotinic receptor binding site probed with unnatural amino acid incorporation in intact cells", Science, vol. 268(5209), 1995, pp.439-442.

13.     J. R. Roesser, M. S. Chorghade and S. M. Hecht, "Ribosome-catalyzed formation of an abnormal peptide analogue", Biochemistry, vol. 25(21), 1986, pp.6361-6365.

14.     G. Baldini, B. Martoglio, A. Schachenmann, C. Zugliani and J. Brunner, "Mischarging Escherichia coli tRNAPhe with L-4'-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phenylalanine, a photoactivatable analogue of phenylalanine", Biochemistry, vol. 27(20), 1988, pp.7951-7959.

15.     Frankel and R. W. Roberts, "In vitro selection for sense codon suppression", RNA, vol. 9(7), 2003, pp.780-786.

16.     S. Li, S. Millward and R. Roberts, "In vitro selection of mRNA display libraries containing an unnatural amino acid", J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 124(34), 2002, pp.9972-9973.

17.     S. Sando, K. Kanatani, N. Sato, H. Matsumoto, T. Hohsaka and Y. Aoyama, "A small-molecule-based approach to sense codon-templated natural-unnatural hybrid peptides. Selective silencing and reassignment of the sense codon by orthogonal reacylation stalling at the single-codon level", J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 127(22), 2005, pp.7998-7999.

18.     Z. Tan, A. C. Forster, S. C. Blacklow and V. W. Cornish, "Amino acid backbone specificity of the Escherichia coli translation machinery", J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 126(40), 2004, pp.12752-12753.

19.     N. Budisa, "Prolegomena to future experimental efforts on genetic code engineering by expanding its amino acid repertoire", Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., vol. 43(47), 2004, pp.6426-6463.

20.     J. C. M. van Hest and D. A. Tirrell, "Protein-based materials, toward a new level of structural control", Chem. Commun., vol. 19), 2001, pp.1897-1904.
21.     P. Wang, Y. Tang and D. A. Tirrell, "Incorporation of trifluoroisoleucine into proteins in vivo", J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 125(23), 2003, pp.6900-6906.
22.     S. Kim, S. You and D. Hwang, "Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and tumorigenesis: more than housekeeping", Nat. Rev. Cancer, vol. 11(10), 2011, pp.708-718.

23.     J. Tao and P. Schimmel, "Inhibitors of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases as novel anti-infectives", Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs, vol. 9(8), 2000, pp.1767-1775.

24.     M. Guo and P. Schimmel, "Structural analyses clarify the complex control of mistranslation by tRNA synthetases", Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol., vol. 22(1), 2012, pp.119-126.

25.     M. Guo and P. Schimmel, "Essential nontranslational functions of tRNA synthetases", Nat. Chem. Biol., vol. 9(3), 2013, pp.145-153.

26.     Y. Ofir-Birin, P. Fang, S. P. Bennett, H. M. Zhang, J. Wang, I. Rachmin, R. Shapiro, J. Song, A. Dagan, J. Pozo, S. Kim, A. G. Marshall, P. Schimmel, X. L. Yang, H. Nechushtan, E. Razin and M. Guo, "Structural switch of lysyl-tRNA synthetase between translation and transcription", Mol. Cell, vol. 49(1), 2013, pp.30-42.

27.     S. R. Starck, X. Qi, B. N. Olsen and R. W. Roberts, "The puromycin route to assess stereo- and regiochemical constraints on peptide bond formation in eukaryotic ribosomes", J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 125(27), 2003, pp.8090-8091.

28.     M. Kolb, C. Danzin, J. Barth and N. Claverie, "Synthesis and biochemical properties of chemically stable product analogues of the reaction catalyzed by S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase", J. Med. Chem., vol. 25(5), 1982, pp.550-556.

29.     J. M. Hill and A. F. Kluge, "Aminoacyl sulfamides for the treatment of hyperproliferative disorders", US patent 5824657, 1998.

30.     S. R. Starck, Y. Ow, V. Jiang, M. Tokuyama, M. Rivera, X. Qi, R. W. Roberts and N. Shastri, "A distinct translation initiation mechanism generates cryptic peptides for immune surveillance", PLoS ONE, vol. 3(10), 2008, pp.e3460.

31.     S. Fukai, O. Nureki, S. Sekine, A. Shimada, J. Tao, D. G. Vassylyev and S. Yokoyama, "Structural basis for double-sieve discrimination of L-valine from L-isoleucine
and L-threonine by the complex of tRNA(Val) and valyl-tRNA synthetase", Cell, vol. 103(5), 2000, pp.793-803.

32.     S. Fukai, O. Nureki, S. Sekine, A. Shimada, D. G. Vassylyev and S. Yokoyama, "Mechanism of molecular interactions for tRNA(Val) recognition by valyl-tRNA synthetase", RNA, vol. 9(1), 2003, pp.100-111.