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Volume-4 Issue-1


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Volume-4 Issue-1, March 2015, ISSN:  2277-3878 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Valentin L. Velev, Anton N. Popov, Todor N. Dimov, Hristo Y. Hristov

Paper Title:

Structural Changes in Amorphous Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate) Fibers Caused by Combined Heat Mechanical Treatment

Abstract: The article submits new experimental data pertaining to the role of combined heat-mechanically treatments on the birefringence and degree of crystallinity of amorphous uncrystallized but crystallizable poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) filaments. The heat-mechanically treatments of the investigated objects as well as the optical measurements were realized by specialized installations designed and built in the author’s laboratories. Undrawn PET yarns were subjected on heat-mechanically modification at constant temperature of 900C above their glass transition temperature (Tg) combined with tensile stress with values from 0MPa to 30MPa. Birefringence measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used in order to identify the occurred as a result of the heat mechanical processing the specimens’ structural evolution. The optical measurements were carried out using the so called “P-F-A” system involving polarization microscope and a CCD camera. It was established the influence of the superposition “annealing temperature/tensile stress” on the filaments birefringence as well as the dominant effect of the tensile load on the fibers degree of crystallinity.

birefringence, degree of crystallinity, fibers, poly (ethylene terephthalate), tensile stress.


1.       R. B. Dupaix, and M. C. Boyce. (2005, June). Finite strain behavior of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(ethylene terephthalate)-glycol (PETG). Polymer. 46 (13), 4827-4838. Available:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0032386105004118.
2.       Stoyko Fakirov, Oriented Polymer Materials, Weinhaim, WILEY-VCH Verlag, 2002, p. 510.

3.       G. Antoniadis, K. M. Paraskevopoulos, D. Bikiaris, and K. Chrissafis. (2009, August). Melt-crystallization mechanism of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes prepared by in situ polymerization. Journal of Polymer Science Part B, Polymer Physics, 47(15),1452-1466.Available:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/polb.v47:15/issuetoc.

4.       X. F. Lu, and  J.N Hay. (2001, November). Isothermal crystallization kinetics and melting behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Polymer. 42 (23), 9423-9431. Available:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S003238610100502X.

5.       A. Ziabicki, and L. Jarecki. (2007, July). Crystallization-controlled limitations of melt spinning. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 105(1), 215 – 223. Available:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/app.26121/abstra    ct?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false

6.       J. K. Keum, and  H. H. Song. (2005, January). Thermal deformations of oriented noncrystalline poly (ethylene terephthalate) fibers in the presence of mesophase structure, Polymer. 46(3), 939-945. AVAILABLE:HTTP://WWW.SCIENCEDIRECT.COM/SCIENCE/ARTICLE/PII/   S0032386104012376.

7.       G. Antoniadis, K.M. Paraskevopoulos, D. Bikiaris, and K. Chrissafis. (2010, October). Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/fumed silica (PET/SiO2) prepared by in situ polymerization. Thermochimica Acta. 510 (1,2), 103-112.

8.       Rudolf, J. Geršak, and M. S. Smole. (2012). The effect of heat treatment conditions using the drawing process on the properties of PET filament sewing thread. Textile
Research Journal. 82(2), 161-171 Available: http://trj.sagepub.com/content/82/2/161.short.

9.       T. Dimov, V. Velev, I. Iliev, and Ch. D. Betchev. (2007). “Sigmoidal” temperature dependence of mechanically induced birefringence in polymers. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials. 9(2), 275 – 277. Available: http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18761984.

10.    M. Ren, Z. Zhang, S. Wu, J. Wei, and C. Xiao. (2006). Uniaxial orientation and crystallization behavior of amorphous poly (ethylene terephthalate) fibers. Journal of Polymer Research. 13, 9–15. Available:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10965-005-9005-y#page-1.V. Velev, T. Dimov, A. Popov,

11.    Y. Denev, H. Hristov, T. Angelov, K. Markova, M. Zagortcheva, N. Arhangelova, and N. Uzunov. (2010). Birefringence in heat-mechanical modified freshly moulded polyester fibers. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 253(1) 012026.  Available:http: http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/253/1/012026.

12.    V.Velev, T. Dimov, A. Popov, and I. Iliev. (2009). Stress induced birefringence in as-spun polyester fibers. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials - Symposia, 1(3), 563 – 565. Available:http://scholar.google.bg/scholar?start=30&q=Journal+of+Optoelectronics+and+Advanced+Materials+-+Symposia,+2009&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&as_vis=1.

13.    R. S. Stein, and G. L. Wilkes. (1975). Structure and properties of oriented polymers. I. M. Ward (ed.). Ch.3. Physico-chemical approaches to the measurement of anisotropy. Available:http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-010-9803-8_3#page-1.






Valentin Velev, Hristo Hristov, Anton Popov, Todor Dimov

Paper Title:

Deformation and Phase Behavior of Thermo-Mechanically Modified As-Spun Polyester Fibers

Abstract:  Thermo mechanically induced dimensional changes, birefringence and degree of crystallinity in amorphous poly (ethylene terephthalate) PET fibers were investigated. The heat mechanical treatments and optical measurements of the investigated filaments were performed by specialized devices constructed and made in the author’s laboratories. Undrawn PET yarns were subjected on heat mechanical modification at constant temperature of 950C above their glass transition temperature combined with tensile stress with values from 0MPa to 30MPa. Birefringence measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used in order to identify the occurred structural changes. Was established the effect of the superposition “annealing temperature/tensile stress” on the filaments birefringence as well as the dominant role of the strain stress on the fibers degree of crystallinity. It was found correlation between the filaments deformation behavior and the crystallization process in the studied PET objects.

 birefringence, deformation behavior, degree of crystallinity, fibers, strain stress.


1.       B. Kim, V. Koncar, E. Devaux, C. Dufour, and P. Viallier. (2004, October). Electrical and morphological properties of PP and PET conductive polymer fibers. Synthetic Metals. 146(2), 167–174. AVAILABLE:HTTP://WWW.SCIENCEDIRECT.COM/SCIENCE/ARTICLE/PII/S0379677904002735.
2.       G. Antoniadis, K. M. Paraskevopoulos, D. Bikiaris, and K. Chrissafis. (2009, August). Melt-crystallization mechanism of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes prepared by in situ polymerization. Journal of Polymer Science Part B, Polymer Physics. 47(15), 1452-1466.Available:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/polb.v47:15/issuetoc.

3.       Göschel U., Handbook of Thermoplastic Polymers: Homopolymers, Copolymers, Blends, and Composites. Ch. 6, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, 2005.

4.       Rudolf, J. Geršak, and M. S. Smole. (2012, January). Textile Research Journal. 82 (2), 161-171. Available: http://trj.sagepub.com/content/82/2/161.abstract.

5.       L. V. Todorov,   J. C. Viana. (2008, April). Structure evolution of PET under step-wise and continuous deformation modes: the effect of stress relaxation on the strain-induced morphology. International Journal of Material Forming. 1 (1), 661-665. Available:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12289-008-0302-y#page-1.

6.       H. Aminoddin, R. R. Semnani, K. Bahareh. (2012, July/August). The effect of hot multistage drawing on molecular structure and optical propertyes of polyethylene terephthalate fibers. Materials Research. 15 (4), 554-560.AVAILABLE:HTTP://WWW.SCIELO.BR/SCIELO.PHP?PID=S1516-1439201200500  0076&SCRIPT=SCI_ARTTEXT.

7.       G. Antoniadis, K.M. Paraskevopoulos, D. Bikiaris, and K. Chrissafis. (2010, October). Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/fumed silica (PET/SiO2) prepared by in situ polymerization. Thermochimica Acta. 510 (1,2), 103-112.

8.       T. Dimov, V. Velev, I. Iliev, and Ch. D. Betchev. 2007 Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials. 9(2), 275 – 277. Available: http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18761984

9.       V. Velev, A. Popov, and B. Bogdanov. ”Heat – Mechanically Induced Structure Development in Undrawn Polyester Fibers” in Thermodynamics - Systems in Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium, J. C. Moreno-Pirajan, Ed. Rijeka: INTECH, 2011, 89-114.

10.    L. V. Todorov, C. I. Martins, and J. C. Viana. (2011, May). Structural development of poly(ethylene terephthalate) during uniaxial stretching above the glass-transition temperature: Study of the statistical influence of the stretching variables. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 120(3), 1253–1265.Available:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/app.33099/abstract.

11.    R. S. Stein, and G. L. Wilkes. (1975). Structure and properties of oriented polymers. I. M. Ward (ed.). Ch.3. Physico-chemical approaches to the measurement of anisotropy. Available:http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-010-9803-8_3#page-1.

12.    V.Velev, T. Dimov, A. Popov, and I. Iliev. (2009). Stress induced birefringence in as-spun polyester fibers. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials - Symposia, 1(3), 563 – 565. Available:http://scholar.google.bg/scholar?start=30&q=Journal+of+Optoelectronics+and+Advanced+Materials+-+Symposia,+2009&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&as_vis=1.






Valentin Velev, Anton Popov, Hristo Hristov, Todor Dimov

Paper Title:

High Temperature Orientation Modification of Undrawn Polyester Filaments. Complex Influence of the Temperature and Tensile Stress

Abstract: In the present work the complex influence of the temperature and tensile stress on the deformation behavior, birefringence and degree of crystallinity of undrawn poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers was studied. Amorphous PET yarns were subjected on heat mechanical modification at constant temperatures in a narrow range above glass transition temperature from 80 0C to 95 0C combined with tensile stress with values from 0 MPa to 30 MPa. Birefringence measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used in order to identify the occurred as a result of the heat mechanical processing structural changes in the samples. The fibers birefringence was measured using a specialized device that allows quick and precisely determination of the birefringence of complex objects such as polymer fibers and films. It is established the influence of the superposition annealing temperature/tensile stress on the filaments dimensional changes, birefringence and degree of crystallinity.

birefringence, deformation behavior, degree of crystallinity, filaments, tensile stress.


1.     L. V. Todorov, and J. Viana. (2008, April) Structure evolution of PET under step-wise and continuous deformation modes: the effect of stress relaxation on the strain-induced morphology. International Journal of Material Forming. 1(1), 661-665. Available:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12289-008-0302-y#page-1.
2.     V. Velev, A. Popov, and B. Bogdanov. ”Heat – Mechanically Induced Structure Development in Undrawn Polyester Fibers” in Thermodynamics - Systems in Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium, J. C. Moreno-Pirajan, Ed.   Rijeka: INTECH, 2011, 89-114.

3.     L. V. Todorov, C. I. Martins, and J. C. Viana. (2012, April) Solid-state structural evolution of poly(ethylene terephthalate) during step uniaxial stretching from different initial morphologies: An in situ wide angle x-ray scattering study. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 124(1), 470–483.

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6.     Ch. Betchev. (1995). On the Characterization by Shrinkage Forces of As-spun Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Filaments. Polymer Testing. 14(2), 163 – 172. Available:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0142941895931957.

7.     Rudolf, J. Geršak, and M. S. Smole. (2012). The effect of heat treatment conditions using the drawing process on the properties of PET filament sewing thread. Textile Research Journal. 82(2), 161-171. Available:
8.     Haji, and R. S. Rahbar. (2012). Structure evolution and mechanical behavior of poly (ethylene terephthalate) fibers drawn at different number of drawing stages. Chemical Industry & Chemical Engineering Quarterly. 18 (2), 233−243. Available:http://scholar.google.com/citations?view_op=view_citation&hl=en&user=PSSwPPUAAAAJ&citation_for_view=PSSwPPUAAAAJ:Tyk-4Ss8FVUC.

9.     Ziabicki, and L. Jarecki. (2007, July). Crystallization-controlled limitations of melt spinning. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 105(1), 215 – 223. Available:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/app.26121/abstract.

10.  Karacan. (2005, July). An in Depth Study of Crystallinity, Crystallite Size and Orientation Measurements of a Selection of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Fibers. Fibers and Polymers. 6(3), 186-199. Available:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02875642#page-1.

11.  F. Hotter, J. A. Cuculo, P. A. Tucker, and B. K.  Annis. (1998, September). Effect of initial take-up speed on properties and structure of as-spun and drawn/heat-set poly(ethylene terephthalate) filaments. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 69(11), 2115–2131. Available:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/%28SICI%2910974628%2819980912%2969:11%3C2115::AID-APP3%3E3.0.CO;2-J/abstract.

12.  V. Velev, T. Dimov, A. Popov, and I. Iliev. (2009). Stress induced birefringence in as-spun polyester fibers. Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials - Symposia, 1(3), 563 – 565. Available:http://scholar.google.bg/scholar?start=30&q=Journal+of+Optoeectronics+and+Advanced+Materials+-+Symposia,+2009&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&as_vis=1.

13.  R. Minqiao, Z. Zhiying, W. Shizhen, W. Jia, and C. Xiao. (2006) Uniaxial Orientation and Crystallization Behavior of Amorphous Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Fibers. Journal of Polymer Research. 13, 9–15. Available:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10965-005-9005-y#page-1.

14.  A. Ajji. (2004, January). A Technique for online biaxial birefringence measurements and its application. Journal of Plastic Film & Sheeting 20, 31-41. Available:http://www.referencerepository.com/homes/journalarticles/page:4/jrnl:Journal%20of%20Plastic%20Film%20and%20Sheeting.






N. Uzunov, H. Hristov, V. Velev, N. Arhangelova, V. Bozadzhiev, D. Nedeva, I. Penev

Paper Title:

Assessment of Trap Parameters Related with Thermoluminescence Peaks in BGO Single Crystals Doped with Vanadium

Abstract:  Doped Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) crystals possessing optical properties such as stimulated luminescence are largely exploited at present for many practical applications. We have conducted detailed studies on the thermally stimulated luminescence of some doped single crystals of BGO. Vanadium-doped (BGO:V) and ruthenium-doped (BGO:Ru) crystals have been grown in the Institute of Solid State Physics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The crystals have been irradiated with UV light from XBO lamp. Glow curves from BGO:V and BGO: Ru have been acquired using a precise thermoluminescence reader designed in the Laboratory for Nuclear physics and radioecology at the University of Shumen. A computerized glow curve deconvolution method has been exploited to obtain trap parameters of the two crystals. Fading of the peaks for the two types of crystals has been studied for time periods as large as 20 days. No significant time-dependence in peak positions and other trap parameters have been observed so far. Applications of the crystals for beta- and gamma- dosimetric applications have been reviewed.

 Thermoluminescence, trap parameters, glow curve deconvolution, activation energy, doped BGO, in-situ-in-vivo dose measurements.


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M. H. Abdul Hadi, B. H. Ahmad, Z. Zakaria, N. A. Shairi

Paper Title:

High Isolation of Single Pole Single Throw Switch using Defected Ground Structure

Abstract:   In this paper, a high isolation of Single Pole Single Throw (SPST) switch using Defected Ground Structure (DGS) is proposed. A discrete PIN diode was used as switching element in the SPST switch design. First, the resonant frequency of the discrete PIN diode on DGS, which is based on mathematical modeling and circuit simulation is analyzed. The results showed that the resonant frequency of the discrete PIN diode on the DGS was shifted to higher frequency during ON state and was shifted to lower frequency during OFF state. Then, by realizing the SPST switch circuit using FR4 substrate in 1.5 GHz frequency band, the measured result clearly showed that high isolation (>30 dB) of the proposed SPST switch during OFF state was produced by using DGS compared to a SPST switch without DGS.

  defected ground structure (DGS), PIN diode, resonant frequency, isolation, RF switch, SPST switch.


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24.    M. H. Abdul Hadi, B. H. Ahmad, N. A. Shairi, and P. W. Wong, “Effect of a Discrete PIN Diode on Defected Ground Structure,” in Wireless Technology and Applications (ISWTA), 2013 IEEE Symposium on, 2013, pp. 333–337.

25.    N. A. Shairi, B. H. Ahmad, M. K. Zahari, and P. W. Wong, “The potential application of switchable matched parallel-coupled stub resonator in SPDT discrete switch design,” in Applied Electromagnetics (APACE), 2012 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on, 2012, pp. 372–376.

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32.    C. C. Lim and N. A. Shairi, “The Development and Challenges of Millimeter Wave Test System for Package Level,” in Applied Electromagnetics (APACE), 2007 IEEEAsia-Pacific Conference on, 2007, pp. 1–5.

33.    N. Forcier, “RF/Microwave Switch Considerations,” in 2008 IEEE Autotestcon, 2008, pp. 484–489.

34.    B. J. Mohammed, A. M. Abbosh, S. Mustafa, and D. Ireland, “Microwave System for Head Imaging,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 117–123, Jan. 2014.

35.    S. Kharkovsky, K. Kam, M. T. Ghasr, A. D. McClanahan, M. A. Abou-Khousa, R. Zoughi, and I. Perez, “Microwave Resonant Switched-Slot Probe with Perpendicular Coaxial Feed,” in 2010 IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Technology Conference Proceedings, 2010, pp. 1299–1303.
36.    N. A. Shairi, T. A. Rahman, and M. . Z. A. Abdul Aziz, “RF Transmitter System Design for Wireless Local Area Network Bridge at 5725 to 5825 MHz Wireless,” in Computer and Communication Engineering, 2008. ICCCE 2008. International Conference on, 2008, pp. 109 – 112.
37.    K. Kawai, H. Okazaki, and S. Narahashi, “Multi-Mode RF Front-End Circuit,” in Microwave Conference (EuMC), 2011 41st European, 2011, pp. 222 – 225.

38.    J. S. Mandeep and C. C. Lim, “Design A SPDT Switch For WiMAX,” Microwaves and RF, no. Lc, pp. 1–4, Dec-2010.






Chirag A Panchal, D.C. Gosai

Paper Title:

Case Study: TO Improve The Performance of Bajaj Kawasaki 4-S Auto Vehicle

Abstract: Energy conservation and efficiency have always been the quest of engineers concerned with internal combustion engines. Energy crisis has been matter of concern to all over the world and it is better understood by more and more energy users. Almost 90% of energy needs of the world are provided by fossil fuels which are depleting at an alarming rate. The efficiency of most commercially IC engine ranges from 38% to 42%. Therefore, between 58% and 62% of the fuel energy content is lost in the form of west heat. Approximately 30% is retained in the exhaust gas and the reminder is removed by the cooling etc. More than 55% of the energy which is produced during the combustion process is removed by cooling water/air and through the exhaust gas. Recently much attention have been focused on achieving higher efficiency by reducing energy loss to coolant during the power stroke of the cycle. Experimental effect appears on actual practice of Bajaj Kawasaki 4-S champion two wheeler. By doing different maintenance case, it focuses that 18.22% increase in fuel efficiency and exhaust emission also improves.

fuel efficiency, emission, average, Bajaj Kawasaki 4-s champion bike


1.    http:// simple.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy conservation
2.    Auto India magazines, june 2005, pp14-18.

3.    Motor India Motor India journal of the automobile industry & trade, sept. 2005 pp 5

4.    service booklet & owner’s technical manual of Kawasaki 4s champion bike.

5.    K.M.Gupta “Automobile engineering”, Vol – II, pp372-374.





H.  Hristov, V. Velev, N. Arhangelova, V. Bozadzhiev, N. Uzunov

Paper Title:

On the Possibility to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Emission Using the Thermo Luminescence of Specific Crystals

Abstract:  A search for crystals capable to produce thermoluminescent glow curves after irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light has been conducted. It has been found that ruthenium-doped crystal of Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO:Ru) posseses suitable properties such as: long enough fading, good sensitivity towards UV emission, and hence could be a good candidate for direct measurement of the solar UV emission. A portable device for measuring the total and the UV solar light emission has been constructed in order to obtain quantitative values about the total and the partial UV energy absorbed by the crystals. Quantitative values for the principle thermoluminescent glow curves of BGO:Ru have been obtained for diurnal direct solar irradiation. It has been demonstrated that the intensity of the TL glow-curve peaks for exposures made at equal daytime intervals changes according Beer’s law for the attenuation of UV in the Earth’s atmosphere.

Thermoluminescence, solar ultraviolet emission, actinometer, glow curve analysis


1.    C. M. H. Driscol, Fundamental Aspects of TLD Materials, in Practical Aspects of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry (ed. A. P. Hulton), CRS -43, London: HPA , 1984.
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3.    http://rpd.oxfordjournals.org/content/33/1-4/331.abstract.

4.    M. Ranogajec-Komor, Thermoluminescence Dosimetry – Application in environmental monitoring, Radiation Safety Management, Vol. 2, No 1 (2003), 2-16.

5.    Liritzis, P. Guibert, F. Foti, M. Schvoerer, Solar Bleaching of thermoluminescence of calcites, Nucl. Inst. in Phys. Research, B 117 (1996), 260 – 268.

6.    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0168583X96003059

7.    S. W. S. McKeever, M. Moscowitch, P. D. Townsend, Thermoluminescence dosimetry materials: properties and uses, Nuclear Technology Publishing, Ashford, UK, (1995)

8.    W. C. Hsieh, C. S. Su, UV induced thermoluminescence in ZrO2 doped by Er2O3 , Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 27 (1994), 1763 – 1768.

9.    http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/27/8/027.

10. C. S. Su, S. M. Yeh, UV Attenuation coefficient in water determined by thermoluminescent detector, Radiation Measurements, Vol. 26, No 1, (1995), 83 – 86. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/1350448795002847.






Hristo Y. Hristov, Valentin L. Velev, Nikolay M. Uzunov

Paper Title:

Feasibility Studies of EU+LI Co-Doped GD2O3 as a Thermo Luminescence Detector for UV Emission

Abstract:  We have already  studied  the possibility  to apply some  sintered  crystals  such  as ZrO2 doped  with Er and Li as appropriate  detectors  for  ultra-violet (UV) light. The detection of  the (UV) irradiation  exploits  the thermoluminescence  (TL) emission  of some crystals (phosphors) after being exposed  to W  irradiation with  wavelength in the interval  of 280nm - 360nm.  It turned out that such  crystals are  easy to create and their TL glow cuvres  possess  well-shaped  peaks with  sufficient  statistical data. In  this article  we present  the  results of our research toward  the creation  of netu  sintered  crystals,  sensible  to  the W emission.  Analysis  of  the  thermoluminescence  properties  of Gd,O3,  doped  with Eu and Li has been  conducted.  Different quantities of  lithium co-dopant  have been  added  as Li2CO3 to a mixture  of Gd2O3 with 10 wt% Eu2O3.  Pellets sintered at a temperature  of  10000C have been prepared and  the kinetic parameters of  the phosphors have been  studied  after irradiation  with W light from  a XBO  lamp.  It has been  shown  that the addition of  16 wt% Li2CO3of  to the mixture  of Gd2O3 with 10% Eu2O3 yields a maximum intensity  of  the peaks  at 870C and at 1450C.  Spectral  emission  and  spectral sensitivity of the phosphors  have been studied.  The analysis  applied  to TL glow  curves,  obtained  from the UV irradiated phosphors  and kept after the  irradiation  at different  times  in a dark storage, revealed  that the peaks  have and relatively  long  fading. Analysis of  the thermoluminescence  properties of  the phosphors  obtained  from Gd2O3,  doped with Eu and Li, shows that  the  possess  a good  sensitivity  to  the UV emission and could  be used for quantitative  measurements of UV light.

thermoluminescence, UV irradiation, UV detector , fading,  glow curves


1.    Y.Hatayama, S. Fukumoto, S. Ibuki,“Photo¬ luminescence on Li-codoped ZnS:Tm phosphor”, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31,    3383 - 3388,1992
2.    M. Prokic, “Effect of Lithium co-dopant on thethermoluminescence   response of some phosphors”,Appl. Rad. and Isotopes, 52, 97 - 103, 2000

3.    H. Hristov, N. Arhangelova, I. Penev, M. Bello, G. Moschini, N. Uzunov, “Influence of lithium co-dopant on the UV-stimulated thermoluminescence of erbium- doped
zirconium dioxide”, Journ. of Optoelectronics and   Advanced Materials, ISSN 14544164,Vol.12,Issue 4, 892 - 894, 2010

4.    W. C. Hsieh, C.S. Su, “UV induced thermo¬ luminescence in Zr02 doped by    Er203, ”Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 27,1763 — 1768 1994

5.    H. Y. Hristov, N. Arhangelova, I. Penev, N. Uzunov, “A setup for  thermoluminescence analysis of crystals”, Annual of Konstantin Preslavsld    University, Shumen, Vol. XVIII B 1, 30 - 38, 2008





V. Velev, H. Hristov, A. Popov, Betchev

Paper Title:

Calorimetric Studies of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) Fibers. Cold Crystallization Kinetics

Abstract:   Using Tian - Calvet differential calorimetry the cold crystallization kinetics at isothermal conditions of amorphous as-spun poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) filaments has been investigated. The Avrami's equation was applied for analysis of the obtained experimental data. It has been shown that the mechanical impact significantly influences the process of the samples crystallization. Has been studied and the influence of linear density on the objects crystallization kinetics. It was suggested that poly (ethylene terephthalate) fibers crystallizes one-, and two-dimensionally from preexisting nuclei. These results are in accordance with the assumption of the quasi-crystallization centers existing in the amorphous PET, formed during the fibers spinning.

 poly (ethylene terephthalate), filaments, Tian - Calvet calorimetry, crystallization kinetics, Avrami's equation.


1.    D. R. Salem, Structure Formation in Polymeric Fibers, Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 580, 2001. Available:http://www.gettextbooks.com.bz/search/?isbn=David+A+Hanser&pg=2.
2.    H. H.A. Hergeth, Synthetic Fibers, Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 904, 1999. Available: http://www.scribd.com/doc/47414580/Synthetic-Fibers#scribd.

3.    Van der Meer D.W., Structure-Property Relationships in Isotactic Polypropylene, Ph. D. thesis, Twente University Press,  2003; Available: http://doc.utwente.nl/40660/1/t000004f.pdf.

4.    S Ran, Z Wang, C Burger, B Chu, BS Hsiao, Mesophase as the Precursor for Strain-Induced Crystallization in Amorphous Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Film, Macromolecules, 35 (27), pp 10102–10107, 2002; Available: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ma021252i.






K. Gyurova, I. Petrova, A. Popov, V. Velev, H. Hristov, T. Angelov

Paper Title:

Determination of the Phase Transitions Enthalpy and the Polymers Degree of Crystallinity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Effects of the Calibration and Experimental Conditions

Abstract: By using of thermal analyzer STA 449 F3 Jupiter (NETZSCH – Germany), the effects of the calibration and experimental conditions on the enthalpy values of the polymorphous transitions and melting of КNO3 were studied. The melting enthalpy and the degree of crystallinity of poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO) used as a solutions  model for DSC analyses have been investigated. Similar data were obtained for a number of commercial crystallizing polymers (PP 6631, Hostaflon 1502, etc.). The thermo physical characteristics obtained by several types of DSC calibration by enthalpy curves are discussed. Were varied different experimental conditions and namely: heating rate – 5, 10 and 20 deg/min; crucibles – corundum or platinum; gaseous medium – air (static) or nitrogen (flowing at rate of 20 ml/min). Certain dependencies of the direction and degree of change of the studied characteristics from the calibration and experimental conditions were found, as well as for the temperature interval of the transformation.

DSC, experimental conditions, phase transition enthalpy, calibration.


1.       V. Mathot, M. Pyda, T. Pijpers, G. V. Poel, E. Kerkhof, S. Herwaarden, F. Herwaarden, and A. Leenaers, The Flash DSC 1, a power compensation twin-type, chip-based fast scanning calorimeter (FSC): First findings on polymers, Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 522 (1-2), 2011, pp. 36-45.
2.       Available:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040603111001353.

3.       Sergey Vyazovkin, Nicolas Sbirrazzuoli, Mechanism and Kinetics of Epoxy−Amine Cure Studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Macromolecules, 1996, 29 (6), pp 1867–1873. Available: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ma951162w.

4.       Oriented Polymer Materials, Stoyko Fakirov (Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, p. 534,  Sep 26, 2008. Available:http://www.google.bg/books?id=BDSORq-a5q4C&dq=Oriented+polymer+materials,+St.+Fakirov&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s

5.       Y. Furushima, M. Nakada, H. Takahashi, and K. Ishikiriyama, Study of melting and crystallization behavior of polyacrylonitrile using ultrafast differential scanning calorimetry, Polymer, Vol.55 (13), June 2014, pp. 3075–3081. Available:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0032386114003929.

6.       Popov, B. Bogdanov, I. Petrova, K. Gyurova, N. Nedelchev, and V. Velev. Thermal studies on polycaprolactam, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol.111(2) pp.1539-1544, 2013. Available:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10973-012-2496-y.

7.       W. Wendlandt. Thermal methods of analysis, John Wiley & Sons Ins., New York, 1974.  Available:http://www.bcin.ca/Interface/openbcin.cgi?submit=submit&Chinkey=56419.

8.       G. D. Gatta, M. Richardson, S. Sarge, and S. Stølen. Standards, Calibration, and Guidelines in microcalorimetry Part 2. Calibration standards for differential scanning calorimetry. (UPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl. Chem., 2006;78; 7, 1455-1476. Available:http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/pac.2006.78.issue

9.       V. A. Bershteĭn, and V. M. Egorov. Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Plymers, Ellis Horwood, 1994, 253. Available:http://books.google.bg/books/about/Differential_Scanning_Calorimetry_of_Pol.html?id=ZNuZzBYfgngC&redir_esc=y.

10.    G. Höhne, ‎W. Hemminger, ‎and H.-J. Flammersheim. Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Springer Science & Business Media, July , 2003, p. 298.   Available:https://books.google.bg/books?isbn=354000467X.

11.    W. Hemminger, and H. K. Cammenga. Methoden der Thermischen Analyse, Springer-Verlag, Berlin /Heidelberg /New York /London /Paris /Tokyo, 1989. A Available: www.springer.com/us/book/9783642701764.

12.    C. A. Nieto De Castro, M. J. V. Lourenco, and M.O. Sampaio. Calibration of a DSC; its importance for the traceability and uncertainty of thermal measurements, Thermochimica Acta 2000; vol. 347(1-2), pp. 85-91. Available: www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00406031/347.
13.    J. Reichelt, and W. Hemminger. Unexpected problems in the calibration of heat-flux differential scanning calorimeters, Thermochimica Acta, 1983; 69(1-2), pp. 59-70. Available:www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0040603183850679.
14.    S. A. Malik, L. Wang, M. A. Page, F. Biddlestone, and G. F. Fernando. Deformation of sample pans used in differential scanning calorimeters, J. Thermal Anal. and Calorim., publiched online: 02. July, 2011. Available:www.researchgate.net/profile/Gerard_Fernando3/publications.

15.    V.A. Drebushak. Calibration coefficient of a heat-flow DSC part 1. Relation to the sensitivity of a thermocouple, J. of Thermal Anal. and Calorimetry, 2004, 76(3), pp. 941-947. Available:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B:JTAN.0000032279.21790.f6#page-1.

16.    C. I. Braga, M. C. Rezende, and M. L. Costa. Methodology for DSC calibration in high heating rates, J. Aerosp.Technol. Manag., São José dos Campos, May-Aug., 2011, vol. 3(2), pp179-192.  Available:http://www.jatm.com.br/papers/vol3_n2/JATMv3n2_p179-192_Methodology_for_DSC_calibration_in_high_heating_rates.pdf.

17.    B. Wunderlich, Macromolecular physics, New York: Academic Press, 1984; 3.Available:http://www.amazon.com/Macromolecular-Physics-Volume-Crystal-Melting/dp/0127656030#reader_0127656030.





D. C. Gosai, H. J. Nagarsheth

Paper Title:

Evaluation of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Copper Coated Diesel Engine

Abstract:  The energy crises and environmental pollution have promoted to use one of the concept of adiabatic engine with catalyst coated combustion chamber of internal combustion engine.[5] The concept of catalytic combustion in direct injection diesel engines has been adopted by various researchers which improve exhaust emissions due to oxidation of fuels by aid of catalyst. To achieve the present requirement of the automotive industries there is continues research to improve performance, exhaust emission and life of the internal combustion (I.C.) engine. The recent research has been focused on the reduction of diesel engine pollutions due to strict emission regulations. [6]   Which  directly affected to human and environments. The present investigation has been made to study mainly emission characteristics of copper coated diesel engine and performance evaluation. An experimental investigation is carried out on twin cylinder, water cool, 1500 RPM constant speed type vertical diesel engine. The cylinder heads surfaces, engine pistons top surfaces and engine valves surfaces were coated with copper material by electroplating processes with 400 microns thickness. The diesel engine combustion chamber inner walls insulated by electroplating copper coating. The performance and exhaust emission were compared with base engine and without copper coated diesel engine. The results strongly indicate that slightly improvement on performance and better improvement of exhaust emission. It is observed that the reduction in NOx and smoke level for Copper catalyst coated combustion chamber. It is also indicate that to change the coating technology and adopt, bimetallic ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) concept.

Efficiency, emission, TBC, Copper, Catalyst


1.       Modi, A. , "Experimental Study of Energy Balance in Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0389,2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0389.
2.       Modi A. J., Gosai D.C., “Experimental Analysis of Performance of Low Heat Rejection (LHR) Diesel Engine”, International Journal of Advances in Thermal Science and Engineering, June 2010, Vol. 1 (1), pp.17-25,.

3.       A.P.Sathiyagnanm, C.G.sarvanan and S. Dhandapani, “ Effect of thermal barrier coating plus fuel additive for reducing emission from Di diesel engine”, Proceeding of the world congress on engineering, June 2010, Vol. III.

4.       Muhammet Cerit, Mehmet Coban “Temperature and thermal stress analyses of a ceramic coated aluminum alloys piston use in a diesel engine” International Journal of thermal sciences, 77, 2014, pp11-18.

5.       J. B. Heywood “Internal combustion engine fundamentals” New York, Mcgraw-Hill, 1988.

6.       S. Narasimha Kumar, “Experimental investigation of two stroke copper coated spark ignition engine withgasoline and gasohol”, International Journal of emerging Science and Engineering, ISSN: 2319-6378, March 2014, Vol. 2, Issue-5, pp.1-7.

7.       Ch.Kesava Reddy, “Control of oxides of nitrogen emissions from high grade low heat rejection diesel engine with crude pongamia oil by catalytic reduction” IJASETR, ISSN:1839-7239, April-2014, Vol.1, Issue-2, pp.10-25,.

8.       Md. Nurun Nabi., “Theorital investigation of engine thermal efficiency, adiabatic flame temperature, NOx emission and combustion related parameters for different oxygenated fuels”, Applied thermal engineering, 30, 2010, pp839-844.

9.       Adnan Parlak, “The effect of injection timing on NOx emissions of low heat rejection diesel injection engine”, Applied thermal engineering, 25, 2005, pp3042-3052.

10.    Ekren Buyukkaya, Muhammet Cerit, “Experimental study of NOx emission and injection timing of a low heat rejection diesel engine”, International Journal of thermal science, 47, 2008, pp1096-11106,.

11.    Dr. Ibtihan Al-Namie, “Study the effect of ceramic coating on the performance and emission of diesel engine”, Journal of engineering,Number 8, august 2012, Vol.18,pp935-942,august 2012.

12.    P.N. Shrirao, A.N.Power, “ Evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of turbocharged diesel engine with mullite as thermal barrier coating”, International Journal of Engineering and technology,3, 2011, Vol. 3,pp256-265,.

13.    R Ganapathi, “Performance evaluation of ceramic coated with air insulated four stroke diesel engine”, International Journal of current Engineering and technology, No.5, December 2013, Vol. 3, pp1858-1862.

14.    Murthy P.V.K., “Performance Evaluation of Low heat rejection diesel engine with pure diesel”, ”, International Journal of applied Engineering research dindigul,3, 2010, Vol. 1,pp428-451,






Prabhmeet Singh, K. K. Jain, R. K. Dave, Pooja Tiwari

Paper Title:

Comparison of Performance of Different Profiles of Fins using Thermal Analysis

Abstract:   In this paper different profiles of fins were considered for thermal analysis (Rectangular, Triangular and helical)in an IC engine. The models were constructed of same dimensions and only outer profiles were changed using CATIA were made rectangular, tapered and helical .The boundary conditions were set up using Ansys .The main aim of this work is to study the steady state temperature distribution in Fins and to improve the heat transfer rate .In this paper we have also considered helical profile at various angle for heat transfer and temperature distribution. 

Ansys, CATIA, Heat Transfer, Fins.


1.       Proc. of Int. Conf. on Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2011Comparative Study Of Thermal Stress Distributions In
2.       Fins Operating At High Temperature For Different Profiles And Materials Prajesh Paul1, Ram C Sharma.

3.       Aziz and T. Fang, “Thermal analysis of an annular fin with Simultaneously imposed bas temperature and base heat flux and Fixed base and tip temperatures”, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 52, pp. 2467-2478, 2011. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science,Engineering and Technology Pardeep Singh, Harvinder lal, Baljit Singh Ubhi.

4.       Modelling and Simulation of  engine cylinder fins by using FEA(IJRASET),B,ARUNKUMAR,S PRATAP.

5.       Heat Transfer Analysis and Optimization of Engine Cylinder Fins of Varying Geometry and Material G. Babu, M.Lavakumar, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE).

6.       Review Paper on Effect of Cylinder Block Fin Geometry on Heat Transfer Rate of Air-Cooled 4S SI Engine Prof. Arvind S.Sorathiya1, Ashishkumar N. Parmar2, Prof. (Dr.) Pravin P. Rathod.

7.       DESIGN MODIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF TWO WHEELER COOLING FINS-A REVIEW Mohsin A. Ali1, Prof. (Dr.) S.M Kherde, International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

8.       G.Raju, Dr. BhramaraPanitapu, S. C. V. RamanaMurty Naidu. “Optimal Design of an I C engine cylinder fin array using a binary coded genetic algorithm”. International journal of Modern Engineering Research. ISSN 2249-6645,Vol. 2 Issue.6, Nov-Dec.(2012),pp.4516-4520.

9.       V. GANESAN, (2008). I C Engines, McGraw-Hill Education (India) PVT Limited.

10.    R. K. Rajput, (2007). Heat & Mass Transfer (M.E.), S. Chand.S. Wange and R. Metkar (2013). "Computational Analysis ofInverted Notched Fin Arrays Dissipating Heat by Natural Convection." International Journal of Engineering and InnovativeTechnology (IJEIT) .

11.    N.Nagarani and K. Mayilsamy (2010). "EXPERIMENTAL HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS ON ANNULAR CIRCULAR ANDELLIPTICAL FINS." International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 2(7): 2839-2845.






Vinay M. Murgod, S. Shivkumar, Anupama N. Kallol, Roopa N. Rao, Sharachandra Kusugal

Paper Title:

Analysis for PH Meter Cover

Abstract: In development of a plastic injection mold, the goal of the designer is to achieve an optimal mold design with minimum material wastage and time per cycle, yet produces the product without defects and blemishes. To design the mold, the designer can vary the mold design by manipulate the shape of the part and also the runner and the gate locations. As a consequences of the cost involved in mold manufacture is very expensive, trial-and error experimentation in the design of the mold is not economical. To permeate this problem, the use of Computer aided design (CAD) or Computer aided engineering (CAE) application assisted in design and establishes the most optimal mold gating system. This research was conducted for implementing the use of CAD/CAE tools to produce an optimal mold gating design using Pro/E and Moldflow® applications. The application tremendously assist the designer in resolve the mold with best gating location in producing an automotive plastic part with low defects, fast time-cycle and the most important factor is to reduce the manufacturing cost

Computer aided design (CAD); Computer aided engineering (CAE). Mould flow, Plastic Mould.


1.       Kalpakjian S. and Schmid S.R., “Manufacturing Engineering and Technology,”  Prentice Hall, New Jersey. (2006).
2.       H.S. Lim, J.S. Son, Y.T. Im, “Gate location design in injection moulding of and automobile junction box with integral hinges”, J. Mat. Pro. Tech. ELSEVIER 140 (2003) 110-115.

3.       W.G. Ryim, Y.I. Kim, S.K. Chang, “A systematic optimization of gate location and processing conditions in injection moulding”, J. Appl. Mech. Trans. ASME 227 (1997) 111-120.

4.       Y.C. Lam, S. Jin, “Optimization of the gate location for plastic injection molding”, J. Inj. Mold. Tech. 5 (2001) 180-192.

5.       S.S.S. Imihezri, S.M. Sapuan, S. Sulaiman, et., “Mould flow and component design analysis of polymeric based composite automotive clutch pedals”J. Mat. Pro. Tech. ELSEVIER 171 (2006) 358-365.

6.       JagannathYammada,Terrence L. Chambers, Suren N. Dwivedi. Intelligent Tool for Plastic Injection Mold design. Volume 7 Issue 2 (2004).

7.       Zhi-Xin Chen, Zhi-Hui Wan. Comprehensive Simulation Analysis of Plastic Injection Process (2009).

8.       Z. Shayfull. Optimizaton of weld line formation by taguchi approch and analysis of variance (2011). 






K. S. K. Sasikumar

Paper Title:

Optimization of Drilling Parameters on Delamination Based on Taguchi Method in Drilling of Natural Fiber Reinforced (Agave) Composite

Abstract:  Agave is the one of the abundantly available plant in India. The wide application of agave reinforced composite plate necessitate the joining of two plates together. For making such joint drilling of those plates is required. Drilling of natural fiber composites is different from the other metals because of its mechanical properties. The major problem faced in drilling of theses natural fiber composites was delamination of the fiber. This paper studies the effect of the input parameters such as cutting speed and feed and Drill diameter on the delamination induced during drilling. Taghuchi method is used for minimizing delamination induced due to input parameters .This study revealed that the input parameters such as cutting speed and feed rate both are influential in on the delamination. ANOVA is carried out to find the influencing parameters.

rilling,Taghuchi, Agave, NFRP, Composite


1.       Nirmal, U., et al., Effect of betelnut fibres treatment and contact conditions on adhesive wear and frictional performance of polyester composites. Wear, 2010. 268(11): p. 1354-1370.
2.       Gellert, E. and D. Turley, Seawater immersion ageing of glass-fibre reinforced polymer laminates for marine applications. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 1999. 30(11): p. 1259-1265.

3.       Ashori, A. and Z. Bahreini, Evaluation of calotropis gigantea as a promising raw material for fiber-reinforced composite. Journal of Composite Materials, 2009. 43(11): p. 1297-1304.
4.       Mylsamy, K. and I. Rajendran, The mechanical properties, deformation and thermomechanical properties of alkali treated and untreated Agave continuous fibre reinforced epoxy composites. Materials & Design, 2011. 32(5): p. 3076-3084.
5.       Chaabouni, Y., et al., Morphological Characterization of Individual Fiber of Agave americana L. Textile research journal, 2006. 76(5): p. 367-374.

6.       Koplev, A., A. Lystrup, and T. Vorm, The cutting process, chips, and cutting forces in machining CFRP. Composites, 1983. 14(4): p. 371-376.

7.       Ho-Cheng, H. and C. Tsao, Analysis of delamination in drilling composite materials using core drill. Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2003. 1(1): p. 49.

8.       Veniali, F., A. Di Ilio, and V. Tagliaferri, An Experimental Study of the Drilling of Aramid Composites. Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 1995. 117(4): p. 271278.

9.       Kilickap, E., Optimization of cutting parameters on delamination based on Taguchi method during drilling of GFRP composite. Expert Systems with Applications, 2010. 37(8): p. 6116-6122.






C. Gajendran, M. Manikanda Ramkumar

Paper Title:

Water Flow Modules in River Basin

Abstract:  To study the flow modules in the river basin indicating the map of study area with the flowchart for evaluating the geophysical conditions. The necessity of recharge of water flow has been assessed with the aquifer properties and the hydrology of the basin. The water flow in river basin is determined with the geophysical conditions and hydrogeological criteria.

flowchart for evaluating the geophysical conditions, necessity of recharge, hydrology of the basin.


1.    Water Supply Engineering- B.C.Punmia
2.    Gis Based Methodology for Ground Water Flow Estimation Across the Boundary of the Study Area in ground water flow modeling. Vijay singhal, rohit goyal

3.    Engineering hydrology- K. Subramanya.






Elfrida Shehu, Elda (Maçi) Vorpsi

Paper Title:

Unified Methodologies- A Necessity for Accurate Assessment in Albania

Abstract:   As the real estate represents one of the most important part of assets for the state and for the individuals, its valuation is currently in the spotlight even in Albania. The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of assessment methods of real estate in Albania. The paper first describes the methods that Albanian appraisers use in evaluating and their application areas For each of the methods are defined strengths and weaknesses. Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the methods leads to the important conclusion that  in order to narrow the differences in the values reported by different appraisers for the same property and the same purpose of valuation,  the accurate and correct use of each method of evaluation should require a unification of methodologies within each method simultaneously with the necessity of developing national standards of real estate assessment  

market value, method of valuation, unified methodology, real estate


1.       Law no. 7850 dated 29.07.1994 "Civil Code of the Republic of Albania", Official Journal of the Republic of Albania No. 11, October 1994, Edition of the National Assembly.
2.       “European Valuation Standards”, Seventh Edition, TEGoVA, 2012

3.       International Valuation Standards Committee, “IVC Framework, 2011”, www.ivsc.org, 30.11.2012.

4.       A.F. Millington, “An introduction to property valuation”, Fifth edition, Estates Gazette, 2000

5.       RICS, RICS Appraisal and Valuation Standards. (The Red Book). The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. London. UK, 2005

6.       M.O. Ajibola, Valuation Inaccuracy: An Examination of Causes in Lagos Metropolis. Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 3, No. 4, December 2010, pp.191.

7.       http://www.instat.gov.al/al/figures/statistical-databases.aspx

8.       E. Shehu, A. Afezolli, I.Kondi  “The model for determinig the market value of residential properties in Tirana City,” ICICSE 2015, Istanbul, Turkey, June 2015 ( acepted).

9.       E. Shehu, “Study of technical factors influence in the real estate market value”, published PhD thesis , Polytechinic University of Tirana, 2013

10.    E. Shehu, A. Afezolli, I.Kondi  “The model for determinig the market value of office buildings in Tirana City,” ICESA`2014, Antalya, May 2014.

11.    E. Shehu, A. Afezolli, “Statistical methods in modelling the market value of real estate. Case Study; Tirana City,” ICTEA, 27-29 March 2015,Dubrovnik, Croatia

12.    E. Shehu, “ A unified methodology for determining the cost value”, Bulletin of technical Sciences, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Nr. 1, 2014, pp 9-19






C. Ranjeeth Kumar, Prisgal Saha G, Sameema N, Shruthy Raj

Paper Title:

Annotating Images from Large Scale Web Community

Abstract:    Automatic image annotation is a process by which metadata is assigned in form of captioning or keywords to a digital image. Large annotation databases are difficult to build because some of the images have partial annotations and noise tags problem. In order to solve the problems with the annotation of large databases, in our approach we remove noise and invalid images from the dataset and extract the visual features from the images. Annotation results are improved using WordNet based annotation refinement method.

Automatic Annotation, Classification, Feature Extraction, Tagging


1.    Ke,Shaozi Lic,and Guolong Chen,“Real web community based automatic Image annotation,”vol.39,no.6, October 2012,pp.945-956,.
2.    M. Ameesh , P. Vladimir ,andK.. Sanjiv,”Baselines for image annotation,”Int J Comput Vision., vol.90,no.1,May 2010, pp.88–105.

3.    W. Yong , M. Tao, G. Shaogang, and H. Xian-Sheng ,”Combining global, regional and contextual features for automatic image annotation,”Pattern Recogn.,vol42,no.2,May2008,pp.259–66.

4.    Li XR, Chen L, Zhang L, Lin FZ, Ma WY,”Image annotation by large-scale content-based image retrieva,” In: Proceedings of the l4th ACM international conference on multimedia, Santa Barbara; 2006, p607–10.

5.    XJ. Wang,L. Zhang,F. Jing,and WY. Ma,”AnnoSearch:image auto-annotation by search,” Proceedings of the IEEE computer society conference on computer vision and pattern recognition ,2006, pp.1483-1490.

6.    J. Jeon, V. Lavrenko, and R. Manmatha,” Automatic image annotation and retrieval using cross-media relevance models,”Proceedings of the 26th annual international ACM SIGIR,August 2003, pp.119–26.