Radioepidemiologic and Experimental Evidence: Health Risks Associated with Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure
Farhana Mohamad Yussof1, Roslan Umar2, Azmi Hassan3, Nurulhuda Mohammad Yusoff4, Siti Maisarah Aziz5
1Farhana Mohamad Yussof, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Medical Campus, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu.
2Roslan Umar, East Coast Environmental Research Institute (ESERI), Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, Gong Badak, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu.
3Azmi Hassan Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Medical Campus, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu.
4Nurulhuda Mohammad Yusoff, UniSZA Science and Medicine Foundation Centre, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, Gong Badak, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu.
5Siti Maisarah Aziz, UniSZA Science and Medicine Foundation Centre, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Gong Badak Campus, Gong Badak, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu.
Manuscript received on November 12, 2019. | Revised Manuscript received on November 25, 2019. | Manuscript published on 30 November, 2019. | PP: 5676-5680 | Volume-8 Issue-4, November 2019. | Retrieval Number: D8202118419/2019©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijrte.D8202.118419
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© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC-BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Abstract: Public exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation, which abbreviatedly known as EMR is a recurring phenomenon and it becomes among the factors contributing to the public concerns. EMR represents a new technology, such as base stations, overhead power lines and other sources of exposure, that is difficult to control by the affected individual. Non-ionizing and ionizing radiation are two major divisions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Both kinds of radiation can be differentiated based on which one has enough energy to knock electrons off atoms upon collision, as well as capable to give out lower-energy harm, such as breaking chemical bonds in molecules. Ionizing radiation is a type of radiation that has a short wavelength to interact with the electrons in biological chemicals. Alpha, beta, and gamma rays are examples of ionizing radiation. The literature on RF effects also focused on the human factor and health parameters, both from the laboratory and epidemiological study perspectives. The presence of this communication technology has given rise to media and public concerns about the possibility of RF radiation emitted by computers, phones and base stations that might cause a rise in diseases that affect the reproductive system, neurobehavioral parameters and various forms of cancers, especially brain tumours. More recently, concerns about the possible effects culminating from the massive development of base stations coupled with increasing use of mobile phones have begun to appear due to the enormous growth of wireless mobile communication, mainly handheld devices. This has led to increased apprehension as to whether non-ionizing radiation (NIR) used in present technologies could have short, medium and long-term biological effects.
Keywords: Radiofrequency Radiation, Mobile Phone, Base Station, Health Effect.
Scope of the Article: Radio Over Fiber.