Development of a Farm Level Paddy Rice Parboiling Device
Umogbai, V. I.
Umogbai, V. I., Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.
Manuscript received on 21 May 2013 | Revised Manuscript received on 28 May 2013 | Manuscript published on 30 May 2013 | PP: 16-21 | Volume-2 Issue-2, May 2013 | Retrieval Number: B0560052213/2013©BEIESP
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Abstract: The need to improve on parboiling techniques by rural farmers in Nigeria has led to the development of a parboiling device at the Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Design and construction of a paddy rice parboiler was carried out using an empty 200 litres metal drum. It has a soaking chamber of 0.1378 m3 with perforated floor of 570 m3 and a steaming chamber of 0.0919 m 3 . The steaming chamber is directly below the soaking chamber and it is provided with two drain plugs to drain water off from the paddy mass and the steaming chamber. A rotating grid is incorporated to serve as a stirrer. The parboiler is mounted on a titling frame for ease of evacuation of the paddy after parboiling. Firewood was used as the source of fuel. The evaluation of the parboiler was done using 50 kg of the long grain rice (SIPPI). The performance of the developed parboiler was compared with the traditional method of parboiling using empty drums and the industrial method. A water uptake test was carried out for the products of the developed parboiler, traditional and industrial methods. Panel subjective test was used to compare the quality of the rice parboiled with the developed parboiler, the traditional and industrial parboiler. The developed parboiler, parboiled 50 kg of rice in 30mins. The quantity of fuel (firewood) used in parboiling was 3.6 kg at a parboiling temperature of 950C. The traditional parboiler parboiled 50 kg of rice in 3 hours and the quantity of fuel (firewood) used in parboiling was 9.8 kg at a temperature of 105 0C. Panels’ assessment showed that the quality of rice produced by the developed parboiler is good when compared to the traditional and industrial methods of parboiling. Overall results show a significant improvement, less time of operation and a cheaper cost using the developed parboiler. A 0.05 significant level used to test the null hypothesis concluded that there is no significant difference in the water uptake of the rice parboiled using the developed, industrial and traditional parboilers at varying temperatures. With a production cost of N15,750:00 (fifteen thousand, seven hundred and fifty naira only) and an operating cost of N400:00 (four hundred naira) which is equivalent to an average of 4.2 tons/month capacity of 35 tons of parboiled paddy per year, the developed parboiler gives a higher economic benefit than the traditional parboiler which cost N3,500:00 (three thousand, five hundred naira) with an average output of 10 tons of parboiled rice per year, which is equivalent to an average of 0.83 tons/month.
Keywords: Device, Paddy, Parboiling, Rice
Scope of the Article: Mobile App Design and Development