Digital Watermarking for Image Authentication using Spatial-Scale Domain based Techniques
Sunil Kumar Vishwakarma1, Birendra Kumar Sharma2, Syed Qamar Abbas3
1Sunil Kumar Vishwakarma, Computer Science & Engineering, BBD University, Lucknow, India.
2Birendra Kumar Sharma, Computer Application, APJ AKTU, Lucknow, India.
3Syed Qamar Abbas, Computer Science & Engineering, APJ AKTU, Lucknow, India.

Manuscript received on November 15, 2019. | Revised Manuscript received on November 23, 2019. | Manuscript published on November 30, 2019. | PP: 2334-2341 | Volume-8 Issue-4, November 2019. | Retrieval Number: D8215118419/2019©BEIESP | DOI: 10.35940/ijrte.D8215.118419

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© The Authors. Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering and Sciences Publication (BEIESP). This is an open access article under the CC-BY-NC-ND license (

Abstract: This paper aims in presenting a thorough comparison of performance and usefulness of concept of spatial-scale domain based techniques in digital watermarking in order to sustain the ownership, security and true authentication. Spatial-scale based image watermarking techniques provides the information of 2-Dimensional (2-D) signal at different scales and levels, which is desirable for image watermarking. Further, these techniques emerged as a powerful and efficient tool to overcome the limitation of Fourier, spatial, as well as, purely frequency based techniques. The spatial-scale based watermarking techniques, namely, Contourlet Transform (CT), Non Sub-sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT), Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) have been selected for watermarking process. Further, the comparison of performance of the selected watermarking techniques have been carried out in terms of different metrics, such as Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Tamper Assessment Factor (TAF) and Mean Structural Similarity Index (MSSIM). Analysis of result shows that multi-directional and shift-invariant NSCT technique outperforms the SWT and DWT based image watermarking techniques in terms of authentication, better capture quality, and tampering resistance, subjective and objective evaluation.
Keywords: Image Watermarking, Spatial-scale Domain Filtering, Non Sub-sampled Contourlet Transform.
Scope of the Article: Water Supply and Drainage.