Abstract: The current healthcare model is mostly in-hospital based and consists of periodic visits. Nowadays, chronic heart failure (CHF) affects an ever-growing segment of population, and it is among the major causes of hospitalization for elderly citizens. The actual out-of hospital treatment model, based on periodic visits, has a low capability to detect signs of destabilization and leads to a high re-hospitalization rate. To this aim, in this paper, a complete and integrated Information and Communication Technology system is described enabling the CHF patients to daily collect vital signs at home and automatically send them to the Hospital Information System, allowing the physicians to monitor their patients at distance and take timely actions in case of necessity. A minimum set of vital parameters has been identified, consisting of electrocardiogram, SpO2, blood pressure, and weight, measured through a pool of wireless, non-invasive biomedical sensors. A multi-channel front-end IC for cardiac sensor interfacing has been also developed. Sensor data acquisition and signal processing are in charge of an additional device, the home gateway. All signals are processed upon acquisition in order to assert if both punctual values and extracted trends lay in a safety zone established by thresholds. Per-patient personalized thresholds, required measurements and transmission policy are allowed. As proved by first medical tests, the proposed telemedicine platform represents a valid support to early detect the alterations in vital signs that precede the acute syndromes, allowing early home interventions thus reducing the number of subsequent hospitalizations.
Keywords: Biomedical instrumentation, chronic heart failure, e-health, sensor signal processing, tele-monitoring, vital signs sensors.
1. “SHAPE survey results to the general public,” in Proc. Annu. Congr. Eur. Soc. Cardiol. Vienna, Vienna, Austria, Sep. 2003.
2. F. Zannad, N. Agrinier, and F. Alla, “Heart failure burden and therapy,” Europace, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1–9, Nov. 2009.
3. Roger, A. S. Go, D. M. Lloyd-Jones, R. J. Adams, J. D. Berry, T. M. Brown, M. R. Carnethon, S. Dai, G. de Simone, E. S. Ford, C. S. Fox, H. J. Fullerton, C. Gillespie, K. J. Greenlund, S. M. Hailpern, J. A. Heit, P. M. Ho, V. J. Howard, B. M. Kissela, S. J. Kittner, D. T. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. D. Lisbeth, D. M. Makuc, G. M. Marcus, A. Marelli, D. B. Matchar, M. M. McDermott, J. B. Meigs, C. S. Moy, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, G. Nichol, N. P. Paynter, W. D. Rosamond, P. D. Sorlie, R. S. Stafford, T. N. Turan, M. B. Turner, N. D.Wong, and J.Wylie-Rosett, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2011 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 4, pp. 18–209, Feb. 2011.
4. F. Alla, F. Zannad, and G. Filippatos, “Epidemiology of acute heart failure syndromes,” Heart Fail. Rev., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 91–95, Jun. 2007.
5. C. Berry, D. Murdoch, and J. McMurray, “Economics of chronic heart failure,” Eur. J. Heart Fail., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 283–291, Jun. 2001.
6. Bundkirchen and R. H. G. Schwinger, “Epidemiology and economic burden of chronic heart failure,” Eur. Heart J. Suppl., vol. 6, no. SD, pp. 57–60, Aug. 2004.
7. J. Ross, J. Chen, Z. Lin, H. Bueno, J. P. Curtis, P. S. Keenan, S. L. Normand, G. Schreiner, J. A. Spertus, M. T. Vidán, Y. Wang, and H. M. Krumholz, “Recent
national trends in readmission rates after heart failure hospitalization,” Circ., Heart Fail., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 97–103, Jan. 2009.
8. S. Stewart, “Financial aspects of heart failure programs of care,” Eur. J. Heart Fail., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 423–428, Mar. 2005.
9. F.McAlister, S. Stewart, S. Ferrua, and J. J.McMurray, “Multidisciplinary strategies for the management of heart failure patients at high risk for admission: A systematic review of randomized trials,” J. Amer. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 810–819, Aug. 2004.
10. E. Seto, “Cost comparison between telemonitoring and usual care of heart failure: A systematic review,” Telemed. J. E-Health, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 679–686, Sep. 2008.
11. C. Klersy, A. De Silvestri, G. Gabutti, F. Regoli, and A. Auricchio, “A meta-analysis of remote monitoring of heart failure patients,” J. Amer. Coll. Cardiol., vol. 54, no. 18, pp. 1683–1694, Oct. 2009.
12. S. C. Inglis, R. A. Clark, F. A. McAlister, J. Ball, C. Lewinter, D. Cullington, S. Stewart, and J. G. Cleland, “Structured telephone support or telemonitoringprogrammes for patients with chronic heart failure,” Cochrane Lib., no. 8, p. CD007 228, Jul.–Sep. 2010.
13. S. Saponara, M. Donati, T. Bacchillone, L. Fanucci, I. Sanchez-Tato, C. Carmona, and P. Barba, “Remote monitoring of vital signs in patients with chronic heart failure: Sensor devices and data analysis perspective,” In Proc. IEEE Sens. Symp. Appl., 2012, pp. 1–6.
14. G. van den Broek, F. Cavallo, and C. Wehrmann, Ambient Assisted Living Roadmap. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, Mar. 2010.
15. S. J. Devaraj and K. Ezra, “Current trends and future challenges in wireless telemedicine system,” in Proc. IEEE ICECT, 2011, pp. 417–421.
16. C. Fabbricatore, M. Zucker, S. Ziganki, and A. P. Karduck, “Towards an unified architecture for smart home and ambient assisted living solutions: A focus on elderly people,” in Proc. IEEE DEST, Jun. 2011, pp. 305–311.
17. Jara, M. A. Zamora, and A. F. G. Skarmeta, “An architecture for ambient assisted living and health environments,” in Proc. Lecture Notes Comput. Sci., 2009, vol. 5518, pp. 882–889.
18. J. P. Riley and M. R. Cowie, “Telemonitoring in heart failure,” Heart Educ. Heart, vol. 95, no. 23, pp. 1964–1968, Dec. 2009.
19. T. Bacchillone, M. Donati, S. Saponara, and L. Fanucci, “A flexible home gateway system for telecare of patients affected by chronic heart failure,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Med. Inf. Commun. Technol., 2011, pp. 139–142.
20. R. Dolin, L. Alschuler, S. Boyer, C. Beebe, F. M. Behlen, P. V. Biron, and A. Shabo, “HL7 clinical document architecture, release 2,” J. Amer. Med. Inf. Assoc., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 30–39, Jan./Feb. 2006.
21. Implementation Guide for CDA Release 2.0 Personal Healthcare Monitoring Report (PHMR), Health Level Seven Int., Ann Arbor, MI, 2008. [Online]. Available:http://www.hl7.org
22. M. Yuksel and A. Dogac, “Interoperability of medical device information and the clinical applications: An HL7 RMIM based on the ISO/IEEE 11073 DIM,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 557– 566, Jul. 2011.
23. Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine—Clinical Terms, Nat. Lib. Med., Bethesda, MD, 2007. [Online]. Available: http://www.nlm.nih.gov
24. Logical Observation Names and Identifier, Indianapolis, IN. [Online]. Available: http://loinc.org/
25. B. Schijvenaars, G. van Herpen, and J. A. Kors, “Intraindividual variability in electrocardiograms,” J. Electrocardiol., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 190–196, May/Jun. 2008.
26. S. Saponara, E. Petri, L. Fanucci, and P. Terreni, “Sensor modeling, lowcomplexity fusion algorithms, and mixed-signal IC prototyping for gas measures in low-emission vehicles,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 372–384, Feb. 2011.
27. P. Jiapu and W. J. Tompkins, “A real-time QRS detection algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. BME-32, no. 3, pp. 230–236, Mar. 1985.
28. N. Arzeno, Z. Deng, and C. Poon, “Analysis of first-derivative based QRS detection algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 478– 484, Feb. 2008.
29. K. Tateno and L. Glass, “Automatic detection of atrial fibrillation using the coefficient of variation and density histograms of RR andΔRR intervals,” Med. Biol.
Eng. Comput., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 664–671, Nov. 2001.
30. Ghodrati and S. Marinello, “Statistical analysis of RR interval irregularities for detection of atrial fibrillation,” in Proc. Comput.Cardiol., 2008, vol. 35, pp. 1057–1060.
Abstract: Due to the rapid expansion in banks and the severe competition for customers’ retention, banks have started using various marketing strategies to achieve their objectives. Customer Relationship Marketing is one of the marketing strategies that may be used in this respect. The study aims to investigate the impact of Customer Relationship Marketing on Customer Satisfaction in Banking Industry in KSA and Jordan. An e-mail questionnaire was designed and sent to 500 hundred customers of Arab Bank in KSA and Jordan, creating two sample pools of respondents. A total of 151 of the collected questionnaires were valid. The study findings show medium to high degrees of positive attributes of the two samples toward Customer Relationship Marketing dimensions (trust, commitment, communication, empathy, social bonding and fulfilling promises) on customer satisfaction. The findings also indicate different attitudes regarding the importance of Customer Relationship Marketing dimension between the two samples. The findings also indicate different results regarding the impact of Customer Relationship Marketing on customer’s satisfaction due to gender, age and educational level. Ultimately, the study suggested that Arab bank, whether in the study’s two selected countries, or in other countries where it has branches and operates from, should apply Customer Relationship Marketing in order to maintain its market share in the market..
Keywords: Customer Relationship, Customer Satisfaction, Bank Services .
1. Allen, D.R. and Rao, T.R (2000) Analysis of Customer satisfaction data, Mikwaukee, WI ASQ Quality presses.
2. Clark, N., Peck, H., Payne, A. and Christopher, M.(1995), “Relationship Marketing: towards a new paradigm”, in Payne, A. (Ed.), Advances in Relationship Marketing, Kogan Page, London
3. Creswell, J (2003) Research Design: Qualitative and Quantative and Mixed Methods, thousand Oaks CA, Sage Publications Inc.
4. Egan.J. (2001), Relationship Marketing: Exploring Relational Strategies in Marketing, Prentice¬ Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
5. Grönroos, C. (2000), Service Management and Marketing: A Customer Relationship Management Approach, Wiley, New York, NY.
6. Gummesson, E. (1993), Relations marketing, Fran 4 P till 3 R (Relationship Marketing: from4Ps to 3Rs), Stockholm University, Stockholm.
7. Gummesson, E. (1999), Total RelationshipMarketing: RethinkingMarketing Management from 4Ps to BORs, Butterworth-Heinemann, New York, and NY.
8. Hakansson, H. and Snehota, I. (Eds) (1995), Developing Relationships in Business Networks, Routledge, London.
9. Hinde, R.A. (1997), Relationship: A Dialectical Perspective, Psychology Press, Hove.
10. Hunt, S.D. and Morgan, R.M. (1995), “Relationship marketing in the era of network competition”, Marketing Management
11. Kiesler, C.A. (1971), the Psychology of Commitment, Academic Press, New York, NY.
12. Kotler, P (2000) Marketing Management, Prentice Hall, NJ.
13. Kotler , Philip ,(1999) Marketing Management , 6th Edition , Prentice – Hall, Englewood Cliffs , N J .
14. Kotler , Philip , Armstrong . Gary , Saunders and Wond , Veronica ,(2000) : “ Principles of Marketing “ 3rded , NY , Pearson Education Limited Hall Payne, (1995) Advances in Relationship Marketing, Kogan Page, London.
15. Radley, A. (1996), “Relationships in detail: the study of social interaction”, in Miell, D. and Dallos, R. (Eds), Social Interaction and Personal Relationships, Sage (The Open University), London.
16. Rapp, S. and Collins, T. (1990), the Great Marketing Turnaround, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
17. Sheth,.N. (2000), "Relationship marketing: paradigm shift or shaft?" in Sheth,.N. and Parvatiyar, a (Eds), Handbook of Relationship Marketing, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA.
18. Solomon, M.R. (1994), Consumer Behavior, 2nd ed., Ally and Bacon, Boston, MA.
19. Stone, M., Woodcock, N. and Machtynger, 1." (2000), Customer Relationship Marketing: Get to Know Your Customers and Win Their Loyalty, Kogan Page, New York, NY. Second: Thesis
20. Aalton, P (2004) “Customer relationship Marketing and effect of Demographic and technology on customer satisfaction and loyalty in financial services”, PhD unpublished thesis, Old Dominion University, USA.Third: Journals
21. Andersen, P.R. (2001), "Relationship development and marketing communication: an integrative Model", Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, V 01.16 No.2, pp. 167-82.
22. Anderson, E.W. and Sullivan, M.W. (1993), “The antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction for firms”, Marketing Science, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 125-43.
23. Anderson, Erin W. and Barton Weitz (1992), "The Use of Pledges to Build and Sustain Commitment in Distribution Channels“, Journal of Marketing Research, 29 (February), 18-34.
24. Arturo Molina, Cobertizo San Pedro Ma´rtir and David Martı´n-Consuegra ( 2007 ) Relational benefits and customer satisfaction in retail banking International Journal of Bank Marketing Vol. 25 No. 4, pp. 253-271
25. Beatty, S.E., Mayer, M., Coleman, J.E., Reynolds, K.E. and Lee, J. (1996), “Customer-sales associate retail relationships”, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 72 No. 3, pp. 223-47.
26. Bell, D.E. (1998), ``Case study: Bronner Slosberg Humphrey'', Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 12 No. 3, Summer, pp. 67-84
27. Berry, L.L. (1995), “Relationship marketing of services: growing interest, emerging perspectives”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 236-45.
28. Bove, L.L. and Johnson, L.W. (2000), “A customer-service worker relationship model”, International Journal of Service Industries Management, Vol. 11 No. 5, pp. 491-511.
29. Bruce, B.H. (1999), “Marketing performance measures: history and interrelationships”, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 15, pp. 711-32.
30. Callaghan, M., McPhail, J. and Yau, O.H.M. (1995), ``Dimensions of a relationship marketing orientation: an empirical exposition'', Proceedings of the Seventh Biannual World Marketing Congress Vol. VII-II, Melbourne, July, pp. 10-65.
31. Chan, L.K., Hui, Y.V., Lo, H.P., Tse, S.K., Tso, G.K.F. and Wu, M.L. (2003), “Consumer Satisfaction Index: New Practice and Findings”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 37 Nos 5/6, pp. 872-909.
32. Christopher, M. (1996), “From brand values to customer values”, Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 55-65.
33. Claycomb, C. and Martin, C. (2001), “Building customer relationships: an inventory of service providers’ objectives and practices”, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 19 No. 6, pp. 385-99.
34. Conway, T. and Swift,].S. (2000), "International relationship marketing - the importance of Psychic distance", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 34 No. 11/12, pp. 1391-413.
35. East, R., Hammond, K., & Lomax, W. 2008. Measuring the impact of positive and negative word of mouth on brand purchase probability. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 25(3): 215-224.
36. Ganesan, S. (1994), “Determinants of Long-Term Orientation in Buyer-Seller Relationships”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, April, pp. 1-19.
37. Garbarino, E. and Johnson, M.S. (1999), ``the Different Roles of Satisfaction, Trust and Commitment in Customer Relationships'', Journal of Marketing, Vol. 3 No. 2, April, pp. 70-87.
38. Giese, J.L. and Cote, J.A. (2000), “Defining customer satisfaction”, Academy of Marketing Science Review, Vol. 01, pp. 1-34.
39. Gremler, N and Brown, S.W. (2001), "The Loyalty Ripple Effect: Appreciating the Full Value of Customers", International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 10 No.3, pp.271-93.
40. Grönroos, C. (1990), “Relationship Approach to the Marketing Function in Service Contexts: the marketing and organizational behavior interface”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 20No. 1, pp. 3-12.
41. Grönroos, C. (1994), "From marketing mix to relationship marketing: towards a paradigm shift in marketing", Management Decision, Vol. 32 No.2, pp. 4-20.
42. Grönroos, C. (2000), "The relationship marketing process: interaction, communication, dialogue, value", paper presented at the 2nd Conference on Relationship Marketing, 15 November 1999-15 February 2000.
43. Gundlach, G.T., Achrol, R.S. and Mentzer, J.T. (1995), “The structure of exchange”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 59 No. 1, pp. 78-93.
44. Gwinner, K., Gremler, D. and Bitner, M.J. (1998), “Relational benefits in services industries: the customer’s perspective”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 26 No. 2, pp. 101-14.45. Hocutt AM. (1998), "Relationship dissolution model: antecedents of relationship commitment and the likelihood of dissolving a relationship", International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 9 No.2, pp. 89-200.
46. Johnson, J.T., Barksdale, H.C. and Boles, J.S. (2003), “Factors associated with customer willingness to refer leads to salespeople”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 56, pp. 257-63.
47. Krampf, R., Ueltschy, L. and d’Amico, M. (2003), “The contribution of emotion to consumer satisfaction in the service setting”, Marketing Management Journal, Vol. 13, pp. 32-52.
48. Marshall, G.W. (1996), ``the folly of rewarding a while hoping for B'', Marketing News, Vol. 30 No. 23, November, pp. 6-9.
49. Meier, J. (1995), “The importance of relationship management in establishing successful inter organizational systems”, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 135-48.
50. Moorman, C., Deshpandé, R. and Zaltman, G. (1993), Relationships between providers and users of market research: the role of personal trust”, Working Paper No. 93-111, Marketing Science Institute.
51. Morgan, RM. and Hunt, S.D. (1994), "The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58 No.3, pp. 20-38
52. Ndubisi, N.O. (2003), “Service quality: understanding customer perceptions and reaction, and its impact on business”, International Journal of Business, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 207-19.
53. Ndubisi, N.O. (2004), “Understanding the salience of cultural dimensions on relationship marketing, its underpinnings and aftermaths”, Cross Cultural Management, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp. 70-89.
54. Ndubisi, N.O. and Chan, K.W. (2005), “Factorial and discriminate analyses of the underpinnings of relationship marketing and customer satisfaction”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 23 No. 7, pp. 542-57.
55. Nelson Oley Ndubisi( 2006 ) Effect of gender on customer loyalty: a relationship marketing approach, Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol. 24 No. 1, pp. 48-6156. Nelson OlyNdubisi (2007) Relationship marketing and customer loyalty, Marketing Intelligence & Planning. Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 98-106
57. Oliver, RL. (1980), "A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions", Journal of Marketing Research, No. XVII, November, pp. 460-9.
58. Oliver, S. (1997), "A model for the future of electronic commerce", Information management & Computer Security, Vol. 5 No.5, pp. 166-9.
59. Parker, C. and Mathews, B.P. (2001), "Customer satisfaction: contrasting academic and consumers' interpretations", Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 19 No.1, pp. 38-44.
60. Payne , A and Frow, P ( 2000) Services relationship marketing : A sector case study in relationship marketing , pp 299-316
61. Phillips, J., Tandoh, M., Nobel, S. and Bush, V. (2004), “The value of relationship strength in segmenting casino patrons: an exploratory investigation”, Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 4 No. 3, pp. 1-23.
62. Reichheld, F. and Sasser, E. (1990), “Zero defections: quality comes to services”, Harvard Business Review, September-October, pp. 105-11.
63. Reichheld, F.E. (1993), “Loyalty-based management”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 71, pp. 64-73.
64. Reichheld, F.F. (1996), "Learning from customer defections", Harvard Business Review, Vol. 74 No.2, March-April, pp. 56-69
65. Roberts, K., Varki, S. and Brodie, R. (2003), “Measuring the quality of relationships in consumer services: an empirical study”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 37 Nos 1/2, pp. 169-96.
66. San Martin, S. (2005), “Consumer-retailer from a multi-level perspective”, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, Vol. 17 Nos 2/3, pp. 93-116.
67. Seines, F. (1998), "Antecedents and consequences of trust and satisfaction in buyer-seller relationships", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 32 No. 3/4, pp. 305-22.
68. Sheth and Parvatiyar (1995). Relationship Marketing in Consumer Markets - Antecedents and Consequences ,emory university , Journal of the academy of marketing science valume 23 , No 4 pages 255-271 .
69. Sin, L., Tse, A, Yau, O. Jenny, S and Chow, R ( 2002) The effect of relationship orientation on business performance in a service oriented economy ., Journal of services Marketing , Vol. 16, No. 7 , pp 656-676
70. Tahir Rashid ( 2003) Relationship marketing :case studies of personal experiences of eating out , British Food Journal Vol. 105 No. 10,pp. 742-750
71. Tony Ward and Tracey S. Dagger ( 2007 ),The complexity of relationship marketing for service customers, Journal of Services Marketing21/4 ,pp 281–290
72. Troy Heffernan, Grant O’Neill, Bathurst, Australia ,Tony TravaglioneMarcelleDroulers (2008), Relationship marketing ,The impact of emotional intelligence and
trust on bank performance, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 26 No. 3, pp. 183-199
73. Verhoef, P. (2003), “Understanding the effect of customer relationship management efforts on customer retention and customer share development”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 67, October, pp. 30-45.
74. Walsh, S., Gilmore, A. and Carson, D. (2004), “Managing and implementing simultaneous transaction and relationship marketing”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 22 No. 7, pp. 468-83.
75. Ward, T., Frew, E. and Caldow, D. (1997), “An extended list of the dimensions of ‘relationship’ in consumer service product marketing: a pilot study”, American Marketing Association, Vol. 6, pp. 531-44.
76. Webster, F.E. (1992), “The changing role of marketing in the corporation”, Journal of Marketing Vol. 56, October, pp. 1-17.
77. Wilson, D.T. (1995), “An integrated model of buyer-seller relationships”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 335-45.
78. Wilson, D.T. (1995), “An integrated model of buyer-seller relationships”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 335-45.
79. Wilson, J.S., Stocking, V.B. and Goldstein, D. (1995), “Gender differences in motivations for course selection: academically talented students in an intensive summer program”, Sex Roles, Vol. 31, pp. 349-0.
80. Wong, A. and Sohal, A. (2003), “A critical incident approach to the examination of customer relationship management in a retail chain: an exploratory study”, Qualitative Market Research: an International Journal, Vol. 6 No. 4, pp. 248-62.
81. Zineldin, M. (1998), "towards an ecological collaborative relationship management: a completive perspective'', European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 32 No. 11-12.
Abstract: The present research aims to assess the effect of increasing the thickness of a secondary catalyst layer for N2O emission reduction at a nitric acid plant in Devnya, Bulgaria upon the ambient air quality. A mathematical modeling is done for simulating the dispersion of N2O emissions from the plant into the ground atmospheric layer taking into account the specific topographic and meteorological conditions of the region. Separate graphic models are done illustrating the dispersion of N2O emissions at two main scenarios – at current thickness of the secondary catalyst layer of 60 mm and at future increase of the catalyst layer thickness to 90 mm. Modeling results indicate that under equivalent meteorological conditions the planned increase of the secondary catalyst layer thickness leads to 69 % reduction of the annual average N2O concentration in the atmosphere. Maximum N2O concentrations over specific periods of time (1 hour, 8 hours and 24 hours) are also reduced over 3 times within the outlines of the exposed areas. Research results provide prognosis on the impact of the increased thickness of the secondary catalyst layer as a measure for N2O emission reduction upon the ambient air quality of the source region. Prognosis modeling provides a tool for assessing the contribution of N2O emissions from nitric acid production to the overall greenhouse gas emissions in long-term future periods regarding the implementation of quantitative commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.
Keywords: ambient air quality, greenhouse gas emissions, nitrous oxide, prognosis air dispersion modeling, secondary catalyst layer.
1. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1998
2. European Environment Agency. Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990 – 2012 and inventory report 2014. EEA Technical report No 9 / 2014, Copenhagen, 2014
3. Ravishankara A. R., Daniel J. S., Portmann R. W. Nitrous oxide: The dominant ozone-depleting substance emitted in the 21st century. Sci., 326 (5949), 123-125, 2009
4. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2014 – synthesis report. Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC, Geneva, 2014
5. Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. Dutch notes on BAT for the production of nitric acid, The Hague, 1999
6. Agency for Energy and the Environment. Reduction of nitrous oxide in the nitric acid industry. Novem, Utrecht (The Netherlands), 2001
7. European Commission. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. Reference Document on BAT for the manufacture of large volume inorganic chemicals – ammonia, acids and fertilizers, 2007
8. Stefanova M. Industrial methods for nitrous oxide emission reduction. Ecological Engineering and Environment Protection, 12 (3-4), 89-100, 2013 [In Bulgarian]
9. Perez-Ramirez J., Kapteun F., Schoffel K., Moulijn J. A. Formation and control of N2O in nitric acid production. Where do we stand today? Appl. Catal. B-Environ., 44 (2), 117-151, 2003
10. Komvokis V. G., Marti M., Delimitis A., Vasalos I. A., Triantafyllidis K. S. Catalytic decomposition of N2O over highly active supported Ru nanoparticles (≤3 nm)prepared by chemical reduction with ethylene glycol. Appl. Catal. B-Environ., 103 (1–2), 62-71, 2011
11. Dai C., Lei Z., Wang Y., Zhang R., Chen B. Transfer and reaction performances of selective catalytic reduction of N2O with CO over monolith catalysts. Chin. J. Chem. Eng., 21 (8), 835-843, 2013
12. Dacquin J. P., Lancelot C., Dujardin C., Da Costa P., Djega-Mariadassou G., Beaunier P., Kaliaguine S., Vaudreuil S., Royer S., Granger P. Influence of preparation methods of LaCoO3 on the catalytic performances in the decomposition of N2O. Appl. Catal. B-Environ., 91 (3), 596-604, 200913. Wen B., Ma J. H., Chen C. C., Ma W. H., Zhu H. Y., Zhao J. C. Supported noble metal nanoparticles as photo/sono-catalysts for synthesis of chemicals and degradation of pollutants. Sci. China Chem., 54 (6), 887-897, 2011
14. Haibo Zhou, Zhen Huang, Chao Sun, Feng Qin, Desheng Xiong, Wei Shen, Hualong Xu. Catalytic decomposition of N2O over CuxCe1―xOy mixed oxides. Appl. Catal. B-Environ., 125, 492-498, 2012
15. Amrousse R., Katsumi T. Substituted ferrite MxFe1 − xFe2O4 (M = Mn, Zn) catalysts for N2O catalytic decomposition processes. Catal. Commun., 26, 194-198, 2012
16. Iwanek E., Krawczyk K., Petryk J., Sobczak J. W., Kaszkur Z. Direct nitrous oxide decomposition with CoOx-CeO2 catalysts. Appl. Catal. B-Environ., 106 (3-4), 416-422, 2011
17. Rico-Perez V., Parres-Esclapez S., Illan-Gomez M. J., De Lecea C. S. M., Bueno-Lopez A. Preparation, characterisation and N2O decomposition activity of honeycomb monolith-supported Rh/Ce0.9Pr0.1O2 catalysts. Appl. Catal. B-Environ., 107 (1–2), 18-25, 2011
18. Pasha N., Lingaiah N., Reddy P. S. S., Prasad P. S. S. Direct decomposition of N2O over cesium-doped CuO catalysts. Catal. Lett., 127 (1-2), 101-106, 2009
19. Amrousse R., Po-Jul Chang, Choklati A., Friche A., Rai M., Bachar A., Follet-Houttemane C., Hori K. Catalytic decomposition of N2O over Ni and Mg-Magnetite catalysts. Catal. Sci. Technol., 3, 2288-2294, 2013
20. Haibo Zhou, Peilei Hu, Zhen Huang, Feng Qin, Wei Shen, Hualong Xu. Preparation of NiCe mixed oxides for catalytic decomposition of N2O. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 52 (12), 4504-4509, 2013
21. Gao Y., Luan T., Lu T., Cheng K., Xu H. Performance of V2O5-WO3-MoO3/TiO2 catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3. Chin. J. Chem. Eng., 21 (1), 1-7, 2013
22. Amrousse R., Tsutsumi A., Bachar A., Lahcene D. N2O catalytic decomposition over nano-sized particles of Co-substituted Fe3O4 substrates. Appl. Catal. A-Gen., 450, 253-260, 2013
23. Lei Zhigang, Long Aibin, Jia Meiru, Liu Xueyi. Experimental and kinetic study of selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 over CuO/Al2O3/Cordierite catalyst. Chin. J. Chem. Eng., 18 (5), 721-729, 2010
24. Ma S. C., Jin X., Wang M. X., Jin Y. J., Yao J. J., Liu W. Experimental study on removing NO from flue gas using microwave irradiation over activated carbon carried catalyst. Sci. China Tech. Sci., 54, 3431-3436, 2011
25. Stefanova M., Chuturkova R. Research of the efficiency of a secondary catalyst for nitrous oxide emission reduction at a nitric acid plant. Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 23 (5), 1875-1880, 2014
26. Stefanova M., Chuturkova R. Technical engineering for catalytic reduction of nitrous oxide emissions. GSTF Journal of Engineering Technology, 3 (2), 89, 2015
27. Chuturkova R., Stefanova M. Assessment of the effect of nitrous oxide emissions from nitric acid production upon ambient air quality in Devnya region. Journal Scientific and Applied Research, 4, 163-170, 2013
28. Stefanova M., Chuturkova R., Sokolovski E., Ilieva N. Dispersion modeling of nitrous oxide emissions from a nitric acid plant in Devnya region, Bulgaria. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 3 (5), 448-457, 2014
29. Stefanova M., Chuturkova R. Catalytic reduction of nitrous oxide at a nitric acid plant in Bulgaria. Environ. Prot. Eng., 40 (3), 87-97, 2014
30. Vallero D. A. Fundamentals of air pollution. Academic Press, Burlington, MA, USA, 2007
31. Tinsley I. J. Chemical concepts in pollutant behavior. Willey, NJ, USA, 2004
32. Kaur H. Environmental chemistry. Global Media, Meerut, IND, 2010
33. Bhagi A. K., Chatwal G. R. Environmental chemistry. Global Media, Mumbai, IND, 2010
34. Bailey R. A., Clark H. M., Ferris J. P. Chemistry of the environment. 2nd edition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, 03/2002
35. Jadhav, H. V., Purohit S. H. Global pollution and environmental monitoring. Global Media, Mumbai, IND, 200836. P. Kudesia V., Ritu Kudesia. Air pollution. Global Media, Meerut, IND, 2008
37. Borrego C., Schayes G. Air Pollution modeling and its application. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Secaucus, NJ, USA, 2002
38. Pandurangappa C., Lakshminarayanachari K. Mathematical model for an area source and the point source in an urban area. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 1 (1), 20-28, 2012
39. Abdel Salam H. A. Prediction of pollutants emission dispersion of phosphate fertilizers production facility. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 2 (11), 306-311, 2013
40. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its twentieth session, held in Lima from 1 to 14 December 2014. UN Office, Geneva (Switzerland), 2.2.2015
41. Sinha P. K., Rajesh Kumar. Statistical analysis to investigate the possible impact of climate change on water availability in Letaba river of South Africa. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 3 (6), 41-51, 2015
42. Vijaykumar Kulkarni, Pradip Katti. Policies and strategies for the improvement in energy efficiency in industries – Indian experience. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 2 (2), 159-163, 2013