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Volume-2 Issue-2

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Volume-2 Issue-2, May 2013, ISSN:  2277-3878 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



B. Shankar, D.Vidhya

Paper Title:

Transitioning Residential Neighbourhoods: A Case Study of Jayalaximpuram, Mysore, India

Abstract: In India, large cities are experiencing rapid population and spatial growths. The rising land costs are making the construction of reasonably priced. Local and Planning Authorities are encouraging to transition to commercial retail establishments or higher-density residential uses that supports the need to supply housing apartments by designating streets and areas. Many streets in residential areas have altered into commercial, public and semi public activity and apartments. Transition of land uses is inevitable in large cities like Mysore. Thus, the residential areas are affected greatly in terms of increasing density and overloading the existing infrastructure facilities by changing dynamics of land use. With a result of this, the residential areas are transforming into mixed land use. The City of Mysore is on the large and emerging metropolitan cities in the State of Karnataka. Jayalaxmipuram residential neighbourhood is one among many residential areas which was developed immediately after Independence. The neighbourhood is experiencing rapid land use transformation. The paper presents the residential neighbourhood transformation due changing dynamics of land use in Jayalaxmipuram, Mysore and proposes planning strategies for addressing the transitioning of residential land use. 

 Transitioning, Diversity, Residential, Neighbourhood, Mixed Land Use


1.     Aurand, A. (2010). Density, Housing Types and Mixed Land Use: Smart Tools for Affordable Housing? Urban Studies 47(5): 1015-1036.
2.     Briassoulis, E., 2000. Analysis of Land Use Change: Theoretical and Modeling Approaches. In The Web Book of the Regional Science. S. Loveridge (Ed.). West Virginia University, Regional Research Institute, Morgantown, WV.

3.     Britaldo, S. S., C. C. Gustavo, L. P. Cassio, 2001. DINAMICA – A Stochastic Cellular Automata Model Designed to Simulate the Landscape Dynamics in an Amazonian Colonization Frontier. Ecological Modeling. 154: Pp 217-235.

4.     Burnell, J.D. (1985). Industrial Land Use, Externalities, and Residential Location. Urban Studies, 22(5): 399-408.

5.     Cao, T.V. And Cory, D. (1981). Mixed Land Uses, Land-Use Externalities, and Residential Property Values: A Re-Evaluation. Annals of Regional Science 16, 1-24.

6.     Cervero, R. (1989). Jobs-Housing Balance And Regional Mobility

7.     Ligtenberg, A., A. K. Bregt, R. V. Lammeren, 2001. Multi Actor Based Land Use Modeling: Spatial Planning Using Agents. Land Use and Urban Planning. 56: Pp. 21-33.

8.     Planning. University Of North Carolina. Batty, M. (2007), 'Model Cities', Town Planning Review, 78(2): 125-178.

9.     Post. R. B. (1 964) Criteria for Theories of Urban Spatial Structure: An Evaluation of Current Research M.A. Thesis. Chape1 Hill: Department Of City And Regional

10.  Spatial Logic of Morphological transformation, A Paradigm Of Planned - Unplanned Areas In Dhaka City, Nayma Khan, Ref 052.

11.  Verburg, P. H., W. Soepboer, A. Veldkamp, R.Limpiada, V. Espaldon, S. S. A. Mastura,2002. Modeling the Spatial Dynamics of Regional Land Use: The CLUE-S Model, Environnemental Management. 30 (3): Pp. 391–405.

12.  Wang, Y., and Zhang, X., 2001. A Dynamic Modeling Approach to Simulating Socioeconomic Effects on Landscape Changes. Ecological Modelling. 140: Pp. 141-162.

13.  Xiang W-N, Clarke K C, 2003, "The Use of Scenarios in Land-Use Planning" Environment and Planning B: Planning And Design 30(6) 885 – 909





K.Mohan, K.Ramanaiah, S.A.K.Jilani

Paper Title:

An Enhanced Feature Selection Tool for Face Detection using Genetic Algorithm

Abstract:  Various face detection techniques has been proposed over the past decade. Generally, a large number of features are required to be selected for training purposes of face detection system. Often some of these features are irrelevant and does not contribute directly to the face detection algorithm. This creates unnecessary computation and usage of large memory space. In this paper we propose to enlarge the features search space by enriching it with more types of features. With an additional seven new feature types, we show how Genetic Algorithm (GA) can be used, within the Adaboost framework, to find sets of features which can provide better classifiers with a shorter training time. The technique is referred as GABoost for our face detection system. The GA carries out an evolutionary search over possible features search space which results in a higher number of feature types and sets selected in lesser time. Experiments on a set of images from BioID database proved that by using GA to search on large number of feature types and sets, GA Boost is able to obtain cascade of boosted classifiers for a face detection system that can give higher detection rates, lower false positive rates and less training time  but gives higher detection rates.

   Genetic Algorithm, cascade of classifiers, Adaboost, rectangle features.


1.     P. Viola, M. Jones, Rapid object detection using a boosted cascade of simple features, IEEE Proceedings of the Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference (CVPR), December 11-13, Hawaii, USA, 2001.
2.     R. Lienhart, A. Kuranov and V. Pisarevsky. Empirical analysis of detection cascades of boosted classifiers for rapid object detection. In DAGM'03, 25th Pattern Recognition Symposium, pages 297-304, Germany, 2003.

3.     Treptow & A. Zell, Combining Adaboost Learning and Evolutionary Search to select Features for Real-Time Object Detection, Proceedings Of the Congress on
Evolutionary Computational CEC 2004, Vol. 2, 2107-2113, San Diego, USA, 2004.

4.     H. Rowley, S. Baluja and T. Kanabe. Neural Network-based Face Detector, IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 20(1), page 23-28, 2000.

5.     K. Sung and T. Poggio. Example-based Learning For View-based Face Detection, IEEE Transaction on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 20, page 39-51, 1998.

6.     H. Schneiderman and T. Kanabe. A Statistical method for object detection applied to faces and cars, International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, page 1746-1759, 2000.

7.     D. Roth, M. Yang and N. Ahuja. A Snowbased Face Detector, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 12 (NIPS 12), volume 12, 2000.

8.     S.Z. Li, Z.Q. Zhang, H. Shum and H. J. Zhan. Floatboost Learning for Classification, 16th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), 2002.

9.     J. S. Jang and J. H. Kim. Evolutionary Prunning for Fast and Robust Face Detection, IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation CEC 2006, pages 1293- 1299, Vancouver, Canada, July 2006.

10.  Y. Freund and R. E. Schapire. A Short Introduction to Boosting, Journal of Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 14(5), pages 771-780, September 1999.

11.  T. L. Seng, M. Khalid and R. Yusof. Tuning of A Neuro-Fuzzy Controller by Genetic Algorithm With An Application to A Coupled-Tank Liquid-Level Control System, International Journal of Engineering Applications on Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 11, pages 517-529, 1998.

12.  Areibi, S., Moussa, M., and Abdullah, H., A Comparison of Genetic/Memetic Algorithms and Other Heuristic Search Techniques, International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pages 660-666, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2001.






Sagar M. Gawande

Paper Title:

Water Quality Assessment of “River Morna” Through Akola

Abstract: Akola is growing industrial city and also the pilgrim place in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra State popularly known as cotton city, spreading on an area of 10 Sq.km. It is situated on the bank of “River Morna”. Nearly 65 MLD of waste water is flowing through the drainage system to the river water. Major part of the waste water is directly discharged into the “River Morna” and further many villages on the downstream side are using the river water for drinking and for irrigation purposes. The higher BOD, COD and other chemical and biological contents are polluting the river water and affecting quality of soil by lowering its fertility and health effect to people of Akola. It was intended to carry out the analysis of waste water of “River Morna”. The sampling points were decided for collection of waste water from the “River Morna” and analysis is carried out and the results are discussed in the paper.

   Genetic Algorithm, cascade of classifiers, Adaboost, rectangle features.


1.     Abbasi, S.A., Khan, F.I. and Sentilvelan, K.  (1999) “Modelling of Buckingham Canal Water Quality”Indian Journal of Environmental Health; Vol. 41, No.3, Page: 176-183.
2.     Abbasi, S.A. and Vinithan, S. (1999) “Water Quality in and around an industrialization suburb of Pondicherry” Indian Journal of Environmental Health, Vol. 41, No.4, Page: 253-263.

3.     Bhatia, M.S. and Jaiswal, L. (1999)“Water quality of river Adyar in Chennai city – The River a Boon or Bane” Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 19, No.6, Page: 412-415.

4.     Borkar, P.B. and Khedkar, S.K.  (2000) “Assessment of drinking water quality in Kalleru lake area with reference to Pesticides” Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol.20, No.9, Page: 668-673.

5.     Dara, M.M. and Roy, N.N. (1987) “Investigation of water quality of Subarnarekha River of irrigation” Indian Journal of Environmental Health, Vol. 29, No.4, Page: 292-298.






Umogbai, V. I.

Paper Title:

Development of a Farm Level Paddy Rice Parboiling Device

Abstract:  The need to improve on parboiling techniques by rural farmers in Nigeria has led to the development of a parboiling device at the Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Design and construction of a paddy rice parboiler was carried out using an empty 200 litres metal drum. It has a soaking chamber of 0.1378 m3 with perforated floor of 570 m3 and a steaming chamber of 0.0919 m3. The steaming chamber is directly below the soaking chamber and it is provided with two drain plugs to drain water off from the paddy mass and the steaming chamber. A rotating grid is incorporated to serve as a stirrer. The parboiler is mounted on a titling frame for ease of evacuation of the paddy after parboiling. Firewood was used as the source of fuel. The evaluation of the parboiler was done using 50 kg of the long grain rice (SIPPI). The performance of the developed parboiler was compared with the traditional method of parboiling using empty drums and the industrial method. A water uptake test was carried out for the products of the developed parboiler, traditional and industrial methods.  Panel subjective test was used to compare the quality of the rice parboiled with the developed parboiler, the traditional and industrial parboiler. The developed parboiler, parboiled 50 kg of rice in 30mins. The quantity of fuel (firewood) used in parboiling was 3.6 kg at a parboiling temperature of 950C. The traditional parboiler parboiled 50 kg of rice in 3 hours and the quantity of fuel (firewood) used in parboiling was 9.8 kg at a temperature of 105 0C.  Panels’ assessment showed that the quality of rice produced by the developed parboiler is good when compared to the traditional and industrial methods of parboiling. Overall results show a significant improvement, less time of operation and a cheaper cost using the developed parboiler. A 0.05 significant level used to test the null hypothesis concluded that there is no significant difference in the water uptake of the rice parboiled using the developed, industrial and traditional parboilers at varying temperatures. With a production cost of N15,750:00 (fifteen thousand, seven hundred and fifty naira only) and an operating cost of N400:00 (four hundred naira) which is equivalent to an average of 4.2 tons/month capacity of 35 tons of parboiled paddy per year, the developed parboiler gives a higher economic benefit than the traditional parboiler which cost N3,500:00 (three thousand, five hundred naira) with an average output of 10 tons of parboiled rice per year, which is equivalent to an average of 0.83 tons/month.

    Device, Paddy, Parboiling, Rice.


1.     Ali, N. and Ojha, T.P. (1973) Postharvest Rice Technology: Parboiling Technology of Paddy, Paper Presented at the Regional Training Course, University of Philipines, and Los Banos.
2.     United States Agricultural Industrial Development (USAID, 2005) in partnership to increase rice production in Nigeria.

3.     Rice:Wikipediaorg (2010), the Free Encyclopedia. http//www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice

4.     Raghavendra, R. and Juliano, B.O. (1970) Effect of Parboiling on some Physico-Chemical Properties of Rice, Food Chem. Pp 18,289.

5.     Shaheen, A.B, El Dash A.A and El Shirbeeny A.E (1975) Effect of Parboiling of Rice on the Rate of Lipid Hydrolysis and Deterioration of Rice Bran, Cereal Chem., Pp 52,1.

6.     United States Department of Agriculture (USDA 2010) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference . Nutritional value of rice per 100 g. US annual bulleting on diet.

7.     Gariboldi, F. and Houston, D.F. (1972) Parboiled Rice, in Rice: Chemistry and Technology, Amer. Assoc. Cereal Chemist, St. Paul, Minn. P 358

8.     Gariboldi, .F. (1984) Rice Parboiling; an FAO Agricultural Services Bulletins, No. 56

9.     Ali, N. and Ojha, T.P. (1975). Soaking characteristics of paddy. Journal of Agric. Engineering. Res(20)4, 358.8 

10.  en.wikipedia.org (2010)

11.  Chakraverty, A. and De, D.C. (1981) Postharvest Technology of Cereals and Legumes, Oxford and IBH, New Delhi, p 331.

12.  Ituen, E.U. and Ukpakha, A.C (2011). Improved method of parboiling paddy for better quality rice. World Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Vol.3 No 1.

13.  www.immi.gov.an (2009)

14.  Field Report (2011) Investigation carried out by the researcher.

15.  Obobi, A.A. and Anazodo U.O. (1987) Development of a Rice Parboiling Machine.  Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America, vol. 18 No. 2 Spring.

16.  National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI, 1994) Rice Processing, Advisory Leaflet No. 16 of NCRI Badeggi, Nigeria.

17.  National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM, 1999) Low cost Farming Equipment Technologies Brochures.

18.  Ozumba, I.C. and Obiakor, S.I. (2004). Farm Level Paddy Parboiling Equipment: An improved version. National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization(NCAM). Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

19.  Microsoft Excel 2007






J.Alla Bagash, T.Prathap, G.Karthik

Paper Title:

Power Control of a Hybrid Wind Generator for Distributed Power Generation and Grid Integration

Abstract:   In this paper A dc-coupled wind/hydrogen/super capacitor hybrid power system is proposed is control the system and is to coordinate these different sources, particularly their power exchange, in order to make controllable the generated power. The generated power does not depend on the grid requirement but entirely on the fluctuant wind condition. As a result, an active wind generator can be built to provide some ancillary services to the grid. The control system should be adapted to integrate the power management strategies. Two power management strategies are presented and compared experimentally. We found that the “source-following” strategy has better performances on the grid power regulation than the “grid-following” strategy.

Distributed power, energy management, hybridpower system (HPS), power control, wind generator (WG).


1.     W. Li, G. Joos, and J. Belanger, “Real-time simulation of a wind turbine generator coupled with a battery supercapacitor energy storage system,”IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1137–1145, Apr. 2010.
2.     [Online]. Available: http://www.eurobserv-er.org/

3.     G. Delille and B. Francois, “A review of some technical and economic features of energy storage technologies for distribution systems integration,” Ecol. Eng. Environ. Prot., vol. 1, pp. 40–49, 2009.

4.     C. Abbey and G. Joos, “Supercapacitor energy storage for wind energy applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 769–776, May 2007.

5.     G. Taljan, M. Fowler, C. Cañizares, and G. Verbiˇc, “Hydrogen storage for mixed wind-nuclear power plants in the context of a Hydrogen Economy,” Hydrogen Energy, vol. 33, no. 17, pp. 4463–4475, Sep. 2008.

6.     M. Little, M. Thomson, and D. Infield, “Electrical integration of renewable energy into stand-alone power supplies incorporating hydrogen storage,” Hydrogen Energy, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1582–1588, Jul. 2007.

7.     T. Zhou, D. Lu, H. Fakham, and B. Francois, “Power flow control in different time scales for a wind/hydrogen/super-capacitors based activehybrid power system,” in Proc. EPE-PEMC, Poznan, Poland, Sep. 2008, pp. 2205–2210.






Vandana Choudhary, Rajesh Mehra

Paper Title:

2-Bit CMOS Comparator by Hybridizing PTL and Pseudo Logic

Abstract:    In this paper an area and power efficient hybrid comparator is proposed by hybridizing PTL and Pseudo logic design. This hybrid comparator is proposed to improve area and power in 120 nm technology and compared with the previous work. To improve area and power minimum number of transistor logic is used in the proposed hybrid comparator. The proposed comparator has been designed and simulated using DSCH 3.1 and Microwind 3.1 on 120nm. Also the simulation of layout and parametric analysis has been done for the proposed comparator design. Power and current variation with respect to the supply voltage and temperature has been performed on BSIM-4 and LEVEL-3 on 120nm. Results show that area consumed by the proposed hybrid comparator is 40.99% on 120nm technology. At 1.2V input supply voltage the proposed adder has shown an improvement of 42.69% in power on BSIM-4 120nm technology 

  Magnitude comparator; Binary Comparator; High speed; Low power; Hybrid PTL/PSEUDO NMOS logic


1.        M. M. Mano(1991), Digital Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, ch. 5.
2.        N. West and K. Eshraghian(1993), Principles of CMOS VLSI Design. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley,  ch. 8.

3.        C.-C. Wang, C.-F. Wu and K.-C. Tsai(1998), “1-GHz 64-b high-speed comparator using ANT dynamic logic with two-   phase clocking,” Proc. Inst.Elect. Eng. Comput. Digital Techn., vol. 145, no. 6, pp. 433–436.

4.        R. X. Gu and M. I. Elmasry(1996), “All-N-Logic high-speed true-single-phasedynamic CMOS logic,” IEEE J. Solid-  State Circuits, vol. 31, pp.221–229, Feb.

5.        S. Furber(1997), ARM System Architecture. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

6.        J.-S. Wang and C.-H. Huang(2000), “High-speed and low-power CMOS priorityencoders,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 35, pp. 1511–1514.

7.        S. Kang and Y. Leblebici(2003), “CMOS Digital Integrated Circuit, Analysis and Design” (Tata McGraw-Hill).

8.        M.Morris Mano(2002) “Digital Design” (Pearson Education Asia. 3rd Ed).

9.        Bellaouar and Mohamed I. Elmasry(1995), “Low Power Digital VLSI Design: Circuits and Systems” (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2nd Ed).

10.     Anantha P. Chandrakasan and Robert W. Brodersen(2009), “Minimizing Power Consumption in CMOS circuits”. Department of EECS, University of California, pp.1-64.

11.     S. Salivahanan and S. Arivazhagan (2004)“Digital Circuits and Design” (2nd Ed).

12.     Dinesh Sharma, Microelectronics group(2010), EE Department IIT Bombay, “Logic Design”,pp.1-34

13.     N. Weste and K. Eshraghian(1993) “Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A system Perspective” (Addison- Wesley, 2nd Ed).

14.     John P. Uyemura(2002) “Introduction to VLSI Circuit and Systems” (John Wiley India, ISBN: 978-81-265-0915-7).

15.     R. Zimmermann and W. Fichtner(1997), “Low Power Logic Styles: CMOS Versus Pass Transistor Logic” IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, Vol.32, No.7, pp1079-1090.






Aditi Sandhu, Prashant Priyadarshi, Shalini Tiwari

Paper Title:

GSM Based Engine & A.C Control System for Vehicles 

Abstract:     The main objective of this paper is to focus on a system which is developed using GSM module, KEIL software and PROTEUS software to work as a wireless vehicle engine igniter for various vehicle engine based application. Through this application we can take control over every module inside the vehicle which depends upon the ignition of engine .One of the application focused in this paper is ignition of Air Conditioning system using GSM module. The A.C inside the car usually takes ten to fifteen minutes to maintain the normal temperature. By using this GSM module we turn ON the Vehicle A.C before a required specific time. This is done in two simple steps-Firstly ignition of vehicle engine and Secondly ignition of A.C inside the vehicle by sending SMS by owner’s mobile. The proceeding content will reveal a general outlook to achieve the foresaid objectives.

   GSM, Microcontroller, Relay, Proteus , Keil,

1.     SMS Send/Receive At Command Set. Available at: http://www.cellular.co.za/sms_at_commands.htm.
2.     "Cell phone bus tracking applications developed".

3.     Metro Magazine. April 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-26.

4.     Mazidi Muhammad Ali; Mazidi Janice Gillispie; Rolin D. McKinlay,”The 8051Microcontroller and Embedded Systems:Using Assembly and C”, 2nd edition, published by Pearson Education,Inc, pp-237-270.

5.     Robert L.Boylestad Louis Nashelsky,”Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory”,6th edition, pp-821.

6.     Raj Kamal,”Architecture,Programming,Interfacing and  System Design”,1st edition,published by Pearson Education,pp-83-88.

7.     Vijay K.Garg; Joseph E.Wilkes, ”Principals and Applications of  GSM”, 1stedition, published by Pearson Education, Inc, pp-137-175, pp-195-209.

8.     http://www.tutorialspoint.com/gsm/gsm_architecture.html dated:02/03/2013






Sumedha B. Hallale, Geeta D. Salunke

Paper Title:

Twelve Directional Feature Extraction for Handwritten English Character Recognition

Abstract:      Directional features have been successfully used for the recognition of both machine printed as well as handwritten characters. Selection of feature extraction method is probably the single most important factor in achieving high performance in pattern recognition. In this paper, twelve directional features are used for the recognition of handwritten English alphabets and numerals. The properties of similarity measure are analysed with directional pattern matching. Then the comparison is made between recognition rate of conventional and twelve directional feature extraction techniques. The experiment shows that directional feature extraction techniques are better than conventional one.

    Feature extraction, Pattern recognition, Directional pattern matching, Recognition rate.


1.     Dayashankar Singh, Sanjay Kr. Singh, Dr. (Mrs.) Maitreyee Dutta, “Hand written character recognition using twelve directional feature input and neural network”, ©2010 International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 1 – No. 3.
2.     Cheng-Lin Liu “Handwritten Chinese character recognition: effects of shape normalization and feature extraction”, inria 00120408, Dec 2006.

3.     Bindu S Moni,G Raju “Modified quadratic classifier and directional features for handwritten Malayalam character recognition”, Computational Science-New Dimensions and Perspectives, NCCSE, 2011.

4.     M. Amrouch, Y. es-saady, “Handwritten Amazigh character recognition system based on continuous HMMs and directional features”, IJMER, vol. 2, issue 2, 2012, pp-436-411.

5.     Hiromachi Fujisawa, Cheng-Lin Liu, “Directional pattern matching for character recognition revisited”, proceedings of the  ICDAR 2003, 0-7695-19601/03©2003 IEEE.

6.     M. Ziaratban, K. Faez, F. Faradji, “Language-based feature extraction using template-matching in Farsi/Arabic handwritten numeral recognition”, Ninth International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, pp. 297 - 301, 2007.

7.     Cheng-Lin Liu, “Normalization-cooperated gradient feature extraction for handwritten character recognition”, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 8, August 2007.

8.     Kartar Singh Siddharth, Mahesh Jangid, Renu Dhir, Rajneesh Rani, “Handwritten Gurmukhi character recognition using statistical and background directional distribution features”, International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (0975-3397), Vol. 3 No. 6 June 2011.

9.     Weipeng Zhang, Yuan Yan Tang, Yun Xue, “Handwritten character recognition using combined gradient and wavelet feature” ,1-4244-0605-6/06/$20.00 ©2006 IEEE

10.  Anita Pal, Dayashankar Singh, “Handwritten English character recognition using neural network”, International Journal of Computer Science & Communication Vol. 1, No. 2, July-December 2010, pp. 141-144






Ravi Kumar B

Paper Title:

HVS Based Steganography

Abstract:       The main aim of the project carried is to produce an efficient steganography method which can be avoided by identified through anti-detecting agents ,the project is combination of the two method ,First method is visual criteria and it is followed by data encryption method ,the visual criteria is the method which provide the  embedded impact values of the cover image by means of this values stegno image can avoids the pixel distortion of the cover image will embedding the secret message into the cover image, the experimental results later show that the proposed information hiding system can perform well in different types of images.

   Contrast masking, Embedding, Embedding impact, Steganography.


1.        Willems F. and Dijk M., “Capacity and codes for embedding information in Gray-Scale Signals,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, 2005, pp. 1209-1214.
2.        Zhang X and Wang S, “Efficient Steganographic Embedding by Exploiting Modification Direction,”IEEE Communications Letters, 2006, pp. 781-783.

3.        Fridrich J. and Filler T., “Practical methods for minimizing embedding impact in steganography, ” Proc. SPIE, 2007, pp. 650502.1-15.

4.        Zhang W., Zhang X., and Wang S., “Maximizing steganographic embedding efficiency by combining hamming codes and wet paper codes,” Proc.10th Information Hiding Conf., 2008, pp. 60-71.

5.        Fridrich J., “Asymptotic behavior of the ZZW embedding construction,” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 2009, pp.

6.        Filler T., Judas J., and Fridrich J., “Minimizing embedding impact in steganography using trellis-coded quantization,” Proc. SPIE, Electronic Imaging, Media Forensics and Security XII, San Jose, CA,January 17, 2010, pp. 501-514.






Ketki Muzumdar, Ravi Mante, Prashant Chatur

Paper Title:

Neural Network Approach for Web Usage Mining

Abstract: Web usage mining attempts to discover useful knowledge from the secondary data obtained from the interactions of the users with the Web. Web usage mining has become very critical for effective Web site management, business and support services, personalization, and network traffic flow analysis and so on. Previous study on Web usage mining using a concurrent Clustering, Neural based approach has shown that the usage trend analysis very much depends on the performance of the clustering of the number of requests. In this paper, a novel approach Self Organizing Map is introduced, which is a kind of neural network, in the process of Web Usage Mining to detect user’s patterns. We are going to analyze the traditional K-Means algorithm result with comparison to SOM. The process details the transformations necessaries to modify the data storage in the Web Servers Log files to an input of SOM.

    Clustering, K-Means, SOM, Web Server Log File, Web Usage Mining


1.     R. Kosala, H. Blockeel, “Web Mining Research: A Survey”, SIGKKD Explorations, vol. 2(1), July 2000.
2.     Magdalini Eirinaki , Michalis Vazirgiannis, “Web Mining for Web Personalization”, ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, Vol. 3, No. 1, February 2003.

3.     J. Srivastava, R. Cooley, M. Deshpande, P.-N. Tan, “Web Usage Mining: Discovery And Applications Of Usage Patterns From Web Data”, SIGKKD Explorations, vol.1, Jan 2000.

4.     Vinita Shrivastava, “Web Usage Data Clustering Using Neural Network Learning”, IJRIM Vol. 1, No.  2 , June, 2011.

5.     Navin Kumar Tyagi, A.K. Solanki& Sanjay Tyagi, “An Algorithmic Approach To Data Preprocessing In Web Usage Mining” International Journal of Information Technology and Knowledge Management, Vol. 2, No. 2, July-December 2010,  pp.: 279-283.

6.     Masseglia, F., Poncelet, P., And Cicchetti, R. (1999). “WebTool: An integrated framework for data mining”, In  Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA’99) (Florence, Italy, August1999, pp.: 892–901.

7.     Spiliopoulou, M. And Faulstich, L. C.. “WUM: A web utilization miner”, Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Web and Databases (Valencia, March) 1998. 

8.     Perkowitz, M. And Etzioni, O. 2000. “Towards adaptive web sites: Conceptual framework and case study”, In Artif. Intell. 118, 1–2,pp.:  245–275.

9.     Mobasher, B., Dai, H., Luo, T., Sung, Y., And Zhu, J. 2000c. “Integrating web usage and content mining for more effective personalization”, In Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecommerce and Web Technologies (ECWeb2000). (Greenwich, UK, Sept.).

10.  Paola Britos, Damián Martinelli, Hernán Merlino, Ramón García-Martínez, “Web Usage Mining Using Self Organized Maps”, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.7 No.6, June 2007.

11.  A.M. Mora, C.M. Fernandes, J.J. Merelo, V. Ramos, J.L.J. Laredo, A.C. Rosa, “Kohonants: A Self-Organizing Ant Algorithm For Clustering And Pattern Classification”, Artificial Life XI 2008.

12.  Santhi, S.Shrivasan.P ,“An improved Usage Mining using Back Propagation Algorithm With Functional Update” , Advance computing Conference, IACC 2009.

13.  Prakash S Raghavendra, Shreya Roy Chowdhury, Srilekha Vedula Kameswari, “Web Usage Mining Using Statistical Classifiers And Fuzzy Artificial Neural Networks”, International Journal Multimedia and Image Processing (IJMIP), Volume 1, Issue 1, March 2011.

14.  A. Jirayusakul, S. Auwatanamongkol, “A Supervised Growing Neural Gas Algorithm for Cluster Analysis”, International Journal of Hybrid Intelligent Systems 3 2006.






Alok Kumar, Surya Bhushan Dubey

Paper Title:

Enhancement of Transient Stability in Transmission Line Using SVC Facts Controller

Abstract:  This paper will discuss and demonstrate how Static Var Compensator (SVC) has successfully been applied to control transmission systems dynamic performance for system disturbance and effectively regulate system voltage. SVC is basically a shunt connected static var generator whose output is adjusted to exchange capacitive or inductive current so as to maintain or control specific power variable; typically, the control variable is the SVC bus voltage. One of the major reasons for installing a SVC in transmission line is to improve transient stability of a line. Static VAR Compensator is a shunt connected FACTS devices, and plays an important role as a stability aid for dynamic and transient disturbances in power systems. UPFC controller is another FACTS device which can be used to control active and reactive power flows in a transmission line. The damping of power system oscillations after a three phase fault is also analyzed with the analyzation of the effects of SVC on transient stability performance of a power system. A general program for transient stability studies to incorporate FACTS devices is developed using modified partitioned solution approach. The modeling of SVC for transient stability evaluation is studied and tested on a 10-Generator, 39 - Bus, New England Test System.

     SVC Facts Controller, Transient stability, Matlab.


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S.M.Mehzabeen, I.Manju

Paper Title:

Efficient Optimization Of FPGA On-Chip Memory For Image Processing Algorithm

Abstract:  This paper is concerned with efficient optimization and low power implementation of FPGA on-chip memories in image processing algorithms. In recent years on chip memories are expected to increase continuously which depends upon the application for future generation portable devices and high performance processors. Memory plays a major role in image processing applications more than 90% of the consumed power in the system is by the memory part. This paper provides a novel approach by making SPSRAM to function like a DPSRAM. It supports most of the access schemes for Image processing algorithms and also when the readout changes the memories need not to be redesigned. It achieves high throughput, less hardware requirement and high bandwidth utilization. The   full bandwidth utilization has been achieved by splitting the on-chip memory into four sub banks.  The Optimization of power can be done by making any two banks active at a time.It is well suited for various image coding algorithms when compared to the typical SPSRAM and TDP SRAM.It finds applications in most of the parallel processing fields.GENERAL TERMS Design, measurement, performance, theory

  Bandwidth utilization, Field programmable gate array, Power optimization, SRAM, access schemes in image processing, TDP SRAM.


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6.        P.Deepa,C.vasanthanayaki,FPGA based efficient on-chip memory or image processing algorithm.Microelectron.J(2012).

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10.     Muhammad M.Khellah,Member,IEEE and Mohamed I.Elmasry,Fellow,IEEE,A Low power High performance current mode multiport SRAM,IEEE Transactions on VLSI,Vol.9,No .5,October 2004.

11.     Houman Homayoun, member, IEEE, Avesta Sasan, Member, IEEE, Alexander  V.Veidenbaum, member, IEEE,Hsin Cheng Yao, Shahin Golsan,and Payam Heydari, senior Member, IEEE MZZ-HVS Multiple sleep modes Zig-zag horizontal and vertical sleep transistor sharing to reduce leakage power in on-chip SRAM peripheral circuits,IEEE transactions on VLSI systems,Vol.19,No.12,December 2011.

12.     Srinivas R.Sridhara,Member, IEEE,Michael Direnzo, Member, IEEE, Srinivas Lingam, Member, IEEE,Seok-Jun Lee, Member, IEEE, Raul Blazquez, Member, IEEE,Jay Maxey, Member, IEEE, Samer Ghanem,Yu-Hung Lee,Rami Abdallah, PrashantSingh, Member,IEEE, and Manish Goel, Member, IEEE, Microwatt Embedded Processor Platform for Medical System-on-Chip Applications,IEEE Journal of Solid-state circuits,Vol.46,No.4,April,2011.

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15.     S.S. Ang, G.A. Constantinides, W. Luk, P.Y.K. Cheung, Custom parallel caching schemes for hardware accelerated image compression, J. Real-Time Image Proc. 3 (2008) 289–302.

16.     ARM Architecture Reference Model, ARM DDI 0100l (2005).






Mehboob Ul Amin, Randhir Singh, Javaid.A.Skeikh

Paper Title:

A New Method for PAPR Reduction in MIMO- OFDM Using Combination of OSTBC Encoder and DCT Matrix

Abstract:   Multiple-Input Multiple-Output  Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) is an attractive air-interface solution for next generation wireless local area networks (WLANs), wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs), and fourth generation mobile cellular wireless systems. However one of the main disadvantage associated with MIMO-OFDM systems is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitter’s output signal on different antennas. High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) for MIMO-OFDM system is still a demanding area and difficult issue. So far numerous techniques based on PAPR reduction have been proposed. In this paper a new technique based on the combination of Orthogonal Space Time Block Code (OSTBC) Encoder and Discrete Cosine Transform  based Selective Level Mapping as method of PAPR reduction technique has been proposed and simulated. The results have been verified in terms of various graphs and plots and are compared with earlier results of embedded transform techniques. Simulations show that better results are obtained in the proposed technique

   Multiple Input Multiple Out (MIMO), Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) ,Orthogonal Space Time Block (OSTBC) Encoder, Discreet Cosine Transform (DCT), Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF).


1.        A.J Paulraj, R.U Nabar, and D.A.Gore, “ Introduction to Space-Time wireless communications, Cambridge, UK Cambridge, univ press,2003
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3.        H.Ochiai and H.Imai, “Performance analysis of deliberately clipped OFDM signals,” IEEE Trans commum,vol.50, pp 89-101, Jan 2002

4.        Mehboob ul Amin,et al, “Multiple Input Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) Based Image Transmission Using Hadamard Transform as PAPR Reduction Technique,” International Journal of Engineering and advanced Technology (IJEAT) vol 2, Issue 4,pp 550-553,April 2013

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7.        M.Borgmann and H Bolckei, “Interpolation-Based Efficient Matrix Inversion for MIMO-OFDM receivers,” Proc. 38th Asilomar conf. signals,syst,and computers,Pacific Grove, C.A.Nov.2004,pp 1941-47

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R.Murali, P. Nagasekhara Reddy, B. Asha Kiran

Paper Title:

Power Quality Enhancement of Distributed Network fed with Renewable Energy Sources based on Interfacing Inverter

Abstract: Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity using dish-stirling systems, and wind turbine power are environmentally advantageous sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation.  The expenses of renewable  energy technologies  have decreased  in recent  years,  so that  an ever-increasing  number  of applications  can  be economically justified by utilities. The integration  of generation  from renewable  energy sources into electric power distribution  systems  is a reasonable  way  for  electric  utilities  to  apply  renewable  energy  resources,  since  it places  the sources near the load with  more efficient operation. The interfacing inverter is controlled to perform as a multi-function device by incorporating active power filter functionality and this inverter is used to inject power generated from Renewable Energy Sources to the grid. The objectives of this paper is to develop an assessment methodology for  renewable  energy  electric  generation  and  energy  storage  facilities  integrated  into  electric power distribution systems which addresses the distributed benefits of electricity generation from renewable sources and their true value to the system, and to apply the methodology in case studies. The renewable energy sources which are interconnected to distributed network with interfacing power electronic inverter is analyzed for power quality enhancement by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

    Renewable Energy Sources (RES), interfacing inverter, Power Quality, Active power filter .


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2.        A.Ananda Kumar, J.Srinivasa Rao “Power Quality Improvement of Grid Interconnected 3-phase 4-wire Distribution System using Fuzzy logic control” “International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Vol. 1 Issue 4, June - 2012 .

3.        Yongning Chi, Yanhua Liu, Weisheng Wang, “Voltage Stability Analysis of Wind Farm integration into Transmission Network” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 21, issue 1, pp. 257-264, March. 2006.

4.        J. M. Guerrero, L. G. de Vicuna, J. Matas, M. Castilla, and J. Miret,“A wireless controller to enhance dynamic performance of parallel inverters in distributed generation systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1205–1213, Sep. 2004.

5.        Bhim Singh, Kamal Al-Haddad, Senior Member, IEEE, and Ambrish Chandra, Member, IEEE "A Review of Active Filters for Power Quality Improvement",” IEEE Trans.Iind. Elec-tron., vol. 46, no. 5, Sep. 1999.

6.        AswathyB.Raj , B. Shyam, Robins Anto“Simulation of Distributed Generation Power Inverter as Active Power Filter using MATLAB/Simulink.” International Journal on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology ,Vol.6, No.2,Nov 2011.

7.        R. Karki and P. Hu, “Wind power simulation model for reliability evaluation,” in Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2005. Canadian Conference on, Los Alamitos, CA, 2005, pp. 541–544.

8.        P. Jintakosonwit, H. Fujita, H. Akagi, and S. Ogasawara, “Implementation and performance of cooperative control of shunt active filters for harmonic damping throughout a power distribution system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 556–564, Mar./Apr. 2003.

9.        U. Borup, F. Blaabjerg, and P. N. Enjeti, “Sharing of nonlinear load in parallel-connected three-phase converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1817–1823, Nov./Dec. 2001.

10.     J. H. R. Enslin and P. J. M. Heskes, “Harmonic interaction between a large number of distributed power inverters and the distribution network,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1586–1593, Nov. 2004.






Rajni Bala, Jaswinder Singh

Paper Title:

Effect on Multiband Behavior of Square Fractal Dipole Antenna with the Variation of Angle between Square Fractals

Abstract:  In this paper the design of square shape multiband dipole antenna using fractal geometry is described. The fractal antenna has been designed on substrate FR-4 having thickness h=1.4mm, _r= 4.4 with dimension 70×35mm. Ansoft HFSS software has been used to design and simulate the antenna. The antenna exhibit multiband resonances due to the self similarity in its structure. Firstly antenna was designed up to fourth iteration by keeping angle of 450 between adjacent squares. The experimental result indicates that the antenna resonates at six frequencies 0.75GHz, 2.15 GHz, 3.35 GHz, 4.65 GHz, 5.95 GHz and 7.25 GHz.  It is observed that the multiband behavior of antenna is affected by the variation in angle between adjacent square fractals. In same design when angle between adjacent square fractals is reduced up to 100 the resonance frequencies also get reduced up to three, but at these three resonant frequencies the percentage of bandwidth get increased which means antenna shows wideband behavior.

 Multiband antenna, Fractal, Resonant frequency


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Niketa Vishwanath Patil, S.U.Kadam

Paper Title:

Thermal Recognition in Biometrics Approach

Abstract:   Humans recognize each other according to their various characteristics for ages. We recognize others by their face when we meet them and by their voice as we speak to them. Identity verification (authentication) in computer systems has been traditionally based on something that one has (key, magnetic or chip card) or one knows (PIN, password). Things like keys or cards, however, tend to get stolen or lost and passwords are often forgotten or disclosed. To achieve more reliable verification or identification we should use something that really characterizes the given person. Biometrics offer automated methods of identity verification or identification on the principle of measurable physiological or behavioural characteristics such as a fingerprint or a voice sample. The characteristics are measurable, unique and these characteristics should biometrics not be duplicable. Proper design and implementation of the biometric system can indeed increase the overall security; especially the smartcard based solutions seem to be very promising. Making a secure biometric systems is, however, not as easy as it might appear. The word biometrics is very often used as a synonym for the perfect security

Biometrics, Facial Recognition, Fingerprint Matching, Palm Geometry, Thermal face recognition, Thermal recognition


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7.        X. Chen, P. Flynn, and K. Bowyer, “PCA-based face recognition in infrared imagery: Baseline and comparative studies,” in International Workshop on Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures, Nice, France, October 2003.

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11.     Authors, “Thermal face recognition in an     operational scenario,” in Submitted to CVPR 2004.

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P. Sumitra

Paper Title:

A New, Fast and Efficient Wavelet Based Image Compression Technique Using JPEG2000 with EBCOT versus SPIHT

Abstract:    A wavelet is a function like a small wave and a ripple of baseline.  The Wavelet Transform (WT) is a technique for analyzing signals.  It was developed as an alternative to the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) to overcome the problems related to its frequency and time resolution properties.  Wavelet can be used to represent data as diverse as heart beats and television signals, in a way that reduces redundancy within the signal.  Therefore it can be used for image compression.  This paper focuses important features of wavelet transform in compression of still images, including the extent to which the quality of image is degraded by the process of wavelet compression and decompression. The techniques used are Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) and Embedded Block Coding Optimal Truncation Code (EBCOT). These techniques are more efficient and provide a better quality in the image. In compression, wavelets have shown a good adaptability to a wide range of data, while being of reasonable complexity.  The above techniques have been successfully used in many applications. The techniques are compared by using the performance parameters PSNR.  Images obtained with those techniques yield very good results.



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3.        Harmanpreet kaur , Ramanpreet kaur, “Speech compression and decompression using DWT and DCT”, International Journal of Computer Technology & Applications, Vol 3(4), pp. 1501-1503, July-August 2012.

4.        Manik Groach and Dr. Amit Garg, “ DCSPIHT: Image Compression Algorithm”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA), Vol.2, Issue 2,  pp. 560-567, Mar-Apr 2012.

5.        Bibhuprasad Mohanty, Abhishek Singh and Dr. Sudipta Mahapatra,” A High Performance Modified SPIHT for Scalable Image Compression”, International Journal of Image Processing (IJIP), Vol. 5, pp. 390-402, 2011.

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15.     Andrew P. Bradley and Fred W.M. Steniford ,” JPEG2000 and Region of Interest Coding”, DICTA2002:Digital Image Computing Techniques and Applications, pp. 1- 6, January 2002, Melbourne, Australia.

16.     David S. Taubman and Michael W. Marcellin, “JPEG2000: Standard for Interactive Imaging”, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 90, No. 8, pp.1336-1357, August 2002.






Mercy Nesa Rani and Thangaswamy Rajesh

Paper Title:

Comparative Analysis on Software’s used in Expert System with Special Reference to Agriculture

Abstract:  The expert system developed by various experts clearly indicate that different software’s were used to develop computer based expert system for different applications. There are two ways of building expert system: one is to develop from scratch i.e. to code the expert system as a normal computer programme for each domain using programming languages like CLIPS, PROLOG, LISP, VB 6.0, VB.Net, ASP.Net, PHP etc as front end, MS Access, MySQL, ORACLE etc as back end and the other is to use an expert system shell i.e. to build an expert system with the help of specially designed programmes that are commercially available which may be used for a particular domain. The shell enables the user to build their own expert system with or without the help from knowledge engineers. Thus shells can make considerable saving on programming time. Because of this, building expert system can be faster and more commercial. This paper discuss about different softwares used for the development of expert system.

   Agriculture, Expert System, Software, Information and Farmers


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2.              Riely, G., 2006. CLIPS: A tool for building expert system, available   http://www.ghg.net/clips/CLIPS. html, Accessed on:12 July 2006.Building Expert Systems in Prolog by Dennis Merritt available in http://www.inf.fu-berlin.de/lehre/SS08/KI/merritt.pdf.

3.              Prasad, R., Ranjan, K.R. and Sinha, A. K.,2006. AMRAPALIKA: An expert system for the diagnosis of pests, diseases, disorders in Indian mango, Knowl.-Based Syst. 19(1),  9-21.

4.              Sarma, S. K., Singh,  K .R. and Singh, A. 2010.  An Expert System for diagnosis of diseases in Rice Plant, International Journal of Artificial Intelligence 1 (1),  1-6.

5.              ESTA (Expert System Shell for Text Animation) version 4.1. 1993.  Prolog Development Center, Atlanta, Georgia.

6.              Balasubramani, N., 2004. Designing and testing the effectiveness of computer –based expert system on cognitive and conative domains of rubber growers, TNAU, Coimbatore,2004.

7.              Kumar,V., Lehri,S., sharma, A.K., Meena, P.D. and Kumar,A. 2008.  Image Based Rapeseed-Mustard Disease Expert System: An Effective Extension Tool,  Indian Res.J. Ext. Edu. 8 (2&3).

8.              Babu, M.S.P., Murty,  N. V. R and Narayana, S. V. N. L., 2010. A web based tomato crop expert information system based   on artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies 1 (1), 6-15.

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10.           Bennett, T.B. and Sneed, R.E., 1988. An Expert System for irrigation Planning and Design. ASAE paper No.88-5021.American Society of Agriculture Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.

11.           Folris, V., Simon, D. and Simon,R., 1988.Development of an Expert System for Mark Twain Reservoir Operation. In: Computerized Decision Support System for water Managers .American Society of civil Enginneers,NY,USA.

12.           Getfort,G. and Macvicer, T., 1988. AN operation’s Advisor for Regional water Management. In: Critical Water issues and Computer Application. America Society of civil Engineers, NY, USA.

13.           Haie, N. and Irwin, R.W., 1988. Diagnostic Expert Systems for land drainage decisions. Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 2(2):139-146.

14.           Stone, N.D and Toman, T.W., 1989. A Dynamically Linked Expert-Data base system for Decision Support in Texas Cotton Production.   Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 4:139-148.

15.           Bachelor, W. D., Wetzstein, M.E. and Mc Clendon, R.W.,1989. Economic Theory and Expert System Information Technologies in Agriculture European Review of Agriculture Economics 18(2): 245-261.

16.           McClendon, R.W., Bachelor, W.D. and Hook, J.E.,1989. An Expert Simulation System for Irrigation Management .Proc. Int  Winter Meet American Society of Agriculture Engineers, New Orleans, LA, 12-15 December 1989.

17.           Hart, W.E., Ekholt, B.A. and Kim, T.G., 1989. Irrigation system Selection. ASAE paper No.89-7042. American Society of Agriculture Enginners, St Joseph,MI.

18.           Hershaeur, J., Karim, A., Owens, H. and Philipakis, A., 1989. A Field Observation Study of an Expert System Prototype Development .Inform. Manage. 17:107-116.

19.           Bhatty, M., 1990. Hybrid Expert System and Optimization Model for Multi-purpose Reservoir Operation. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University, Ft.Collins Co.

20.           McGregor, M.J and Thornton, P.K., 1990. Information Systems for crop Management: Prospects and problems. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 41(2):172-183.

21.           Oswald, O., 1990. An Expert System for the Diagnosis of Tank Irrigated Systems: A Feasibility Study. Ph.D.Thesis, Center for water Resources, Anna University, Madras,India.

22.           Hasbini, B.A., Buchleiter, G.W. and Duke, H.R., 1991 .Expert System for Improved Irrigation Management. Proc. Int. Summer Meet American Society of Agriculture Engineers, Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 23-26, 1-17.

23.           King, J.P., Broner, I., Croissant, R.L. and Basham, C.W., 1991. Malting Barley water and Nutrient Management Knowledge- based system. Transaction of ASAE,
34(6): 2622-2630.

24.           Srinivasan, R., Engel, B.A. and Pandyal. G.N.,1991. Expert System for irrigation Management (ESIM). Agricultural Systems, 36:297-314.

25.           Clarke ,N. D., Tan, C. S. and Stone, J.A.,1992. Expert System for scheduling Supplement Irrigation for Fruits and Vegetable Crops in  Ontario. Can. Agric.Eng., 34:27-31.

26.           Plant, R.E., Horrocks, R. D., Grimes, D. W. and Zelinski, L.J ., 1992.CALEX/Cotton: An Expert System Application for irrigation Scheduling .American  Society of Agricultural Engineers,35(6):1833-1838.

27.           Raman, H., Mohan, S. and Rangacharya, N.C.V., 1992.Decision Support for Crop Planning During Droughts.Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering ,118(2):229=241.

28.           Nevo, A., Oad, R. and Padmore, T.,1994. An Integrated Expert System for Optimal Crop Planning. Agriculture Systems., 45:73-92.






D. S. Monisha, R. Shantha Selva Kumari

Paper Title:

Implementation of RNG in FPGA using Efficient Resource Utilization

Abstract:   Computers’ required random numbers initially, for simulations and numerical computations like Monte Carlo calculations. Random number generators offer an important contribution to many communication systems for security. They are critical components in computational science. However the tradeoff between quality and computational performance is an issue for many numerical simulations. FPGA optimized RNGs are efficient in terms of resources than other types of software-based RNGs which means that they can take advantage of bitwise operations and FPGA based specific features. One of the types of FPGA based RNG called a LUT-SR RNG is illustrated using an algorithm. Shift registers are used to improve mixing rate between numbers. Results will be misleading when correlations exist between the random numbers and hence permutations are used. The LUTs are configured into shift registers. The algorithm is simplified based on the architecture such that it ensures longer periods. A generator with a period of 2^(r )-1 can be implemented and provides r random output bits. This provides a good quality balance compared to previous generators. The critical path between all registers is a single LUT. The program is run in ModelSim 6.4a and implementation is done using Xilinx PlanAhead Virtex5 kit.

 random number generator (RNG), field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), SIMD, Look up table, Shift Register (LUT SR).


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3.        D. B. Thomas  and  W. Luk, “FPGA- optimized  high - quality  uniform  random  number  generators,”   in Proc. Field Program. Logic Appl. Int.Conf., 2008, pp. 235

4.        D. B. Thomas and W. Luk, “High quality uniform random number generation using LUT  optimized state-transition    matrices,” J. VLSI Signal Process., vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 77–92, 2007.

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8.        M. Matsumoto and T. Nishimura, “Mersenne twister: A 623- dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudo-random number generator,” ACM Trans. Modeling
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9.        F. Panneton, P. L’Ecuyer, and M. Matsumoto, “Improved long-period generators based on linear recurrences modulo 2,” ACM Trans. Math. Software, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2006.

10.     K. H. Tsoi, K. H. Leung, and P. H. W. Leong, “Compact      FPGA-based   True Random  Number Generators”, in IEEE Symposium on FPGAs for Custom Computing Machines, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, 2003,p. 51.

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12.     D. Wang and A. Compagner, On the  use  of  reducible  polynomials  as  random  number generators, Mathematics of Computation 60 (1993), 363{374}. MR 93e:65012

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14.     V. Sriram and D. Kearney, “A high throughput area time efficient pseudo uniform random number generator based on the TT800 algorithm,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Field Program. Logic Appl., 2007, pp. 529–532.

15.     S. Konuma  and S. Ichikawa, “Design and evaluation of hardware pseudorandom  number generator MT19937,” IEICE Trans. Inf. Syst., vol. 88, no. 12, pp. 2876–2879, 2005.

16.     Y. Li, P. C. J. Jiang, and M. Zhang, “Software/hardware  framework for generating parallel long-period random  numbers using the well method,”in Proc. Int. Conf. Field  Program. Logic Appl., Sep. 2011, pp. 110–115.






Milind U. Nemade, Satish K. Shah

Paper Title:

Beamforming based Speech Recognition using Genetic Algorithm for Real-time Systems

Abstract:  The speech based applications have been always important in communication for the humans. There are in various essential applications like speech recognition, voice-distance-talk and other forms of personal communications. Most recently, speech based interface has been tried to be employed in almost all the mobile and stationary devices. However, these attempts could not give ultimate response due to variations in surrounding noises, changes in person to person speech and also intra person variation. This scenario leads to further research that will make speech recognition more robust and general and can be applied upcoming electronic devices to be sued for gaming, entertainment, cellular phones. The broad categories of speech enhancement techniques can be listed as speech filtering techniques, beam forming techniques and active noise cancellation methods. In this paper, we have improved the performance of beamforming based speech recognition system using evolutionary computational algorithms (Genetic algorithm, GA). Additionally, the system is made to be working in real-time as time required for classifier has been reduced dramatically. This is particularly achieved by including the zeros at random places and in random amount in initial population chromosomes, which were generated randomly in the range of 0 to 1. This results in the reduction of feature elements in feature descriptor and have feature vector length. The experiments were performed for 20 words including numbers and commands, 10 words of numbers only and 10 words of commands only for different values of filter bank parameters.  The results show the effectiveness of the GA optimization in all the subsets of experiments with different parameters of beamforming.

Delay and sum beamformer, HMM based classifier, Least Mean Square, MFC, Nearest Neighbor Classifier


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15.     Kumatani, K.; McDonough, J.; Schachl, S.; Klakow, D.; Garner, P.N.; Weifeng Li, "Filter bank design based on minimization of individual aliasing terms for minimum mutual information subband adaptive beamforming," IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2008 , vol., no., pp.1609-1612,
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21.     Nemade M. U., Shah S.K., “Improvement in Speech Recognition Performance using Beamforming based Speech Enhancement”, International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Engineering (IJECCE), ISSN: 2249-071X (Online, http://ijecce.org) Volume 3 Issue 4, July 2012.

22.     Chan, K.Y.; Low, S.Y.; Nordholm, S.; Yiu, K.F.C.; Ling, S.H.; , "Speech Recognition Enhancement Using Beamforming and a Genetic Algorithm," Third International Conference on Network and System Security, 2009. NSS '09. , pp.510-515, 19-21 Oct. 2009.

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25.     Gao Wen-xi; Yu Feng-qin, "Feature dimension reduction based on genetic algorithm for mandarin digit recognition," 4th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP), 2011, vol.5, pp.2737-2740, 15-17 Oct. 2011.

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V.J.K.Kishor Sonti, V.Kannan

Paper Title:

Noise Analysis of Novel Design of MODFET Low Noise Amplifier

Abstract:   In this paper, Noise analysis of a novel MODFET LNA was done that is designed using Micro strip based design methodology. A novel design has been proposed for MODFET LNA Load and stability has been obtained. A comparative analysis has been done for different values of drain voltages. Noise analysis has also been done and the design is carried out at a centre frequency of 2.4 GHz and the noise bandwidth considered is 6GHz. In this paper the work is carried out using ADS simulation software. Scattering parameter S11 and S22 are obtained. Noise figure and gain of Cascaded LNA is also obtained. Variation of noise figure and gain with respect to frequency has been obtained. From the results the effect of drain voltage on the design performance is explored. Layout of the proposed design has been obtained. Results obtained are in greater coherence with the theoretical observations.

  MODFET, Noise, LNA, Micro Strip


1.    Hasina F. Huq, Syed K. Islam.(2005), “Self-Aligned AlGaN/GaN MODFET with Liquid Phase     Deposited Oxide Gate for Microwave Power Applications”, IEEE,  Department of Electrical and    Computer Engineering, The University of    Tennessee.
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4.    ZHANG Hualiang, The Design of Low Noise Amplifier Using ADS, December 22, 2004

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7.    Peter J. Rudge, Robert E. Miles, Michael B. Steer, Fellow, IEEE, andC Christopher M. Snowden, Fellow, IEEE, “Investigation Into         Intermodulation Distortion in HEMTs Using a Quasi-2-D physical model”, IEEE transactions

8.    Noise in Electronic and Photonic Devices, K. K. Ghosh,  www.intechopen.com





D. M. Awze, A. K. Mahalle

Paper Title:

Design of Steam Pipe Layout and Hanger Support in Thermal Power Station

Abstract:    Steam piping layout in thermal power station is used to transfer steam from one area to another area to perform the work. The present paper is related to steam piping layout between Boiler outlet & Turbine inlet i.e. main steam line. The steam piping layout directly impacts the drop in pressure of the steam. The ideal condition is that the pressure require at turbine inlet should be equal to boiler super heater out let pressure. But due to various factors there is 7 to 9 Kg/cm2 pressure drop. By changing the steam piping layout pressure drop can be minimized. The slight change in pressure drop result less power require to increase the pressure of steam (i.e. Boiler feed Pump) throughout  life cycle of power plant. It means auxiliary consumption can be reduce by doing modification in steam piping layout. The change in piping layout also changes the hanger support position.

   Steam piping layout, main steam line, Pressure drop, Hanger support


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3.        Hanger & Supports for Piping’ by M. Rajagopal,

4.        Pipe Design Engineering

5.        ‘Cold Spring of Retained Piping System’ by L. C. Peng, Peng Engineering, Houston, Texas

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N.Kiran Babu, P.S.Srinivas Babu

Paper Title:

Design of Physical Coding Sublayer using 8B/10B Algorithm

Abstract:     In order to resolve the problem of base-line offset and unbalanced code flow during the fiber data transmission, thesis give a simple and practical solution 8B/10B encoder. This solution taking a method which integrate checking scheme and logic operation, through Verilog HDL description language, realize the design of encoder. The proposed circuit is simulated in Xilinx and Cadence. The results obtained in various tools are presented in this paper.

    Physical coding sub layer, 8B/10B algorithm, Synchronization, Verilog HDL, Cadence Encounter


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Matilda.S, B.Palaniappan, Thambidurai.T

Paper Title:

Performance Analysis of Adaptive Queuing Techniques for Streaming Real-Time Video

Abstract:      Wireless communication today is a mixture of real  time traffic whic is expeced to ocuppy over 70% by 2016 [1].   The challenge lies in integrating the age old wired network with the new-born 4G networks to provide better user experience. Excessive delay is observed in the Base stations and  WiMax networks due to difference in available bandwidth between the fixed network and the wireless link. The main reason attributed to the failure in streaming of real-time video, is lack of proper buffer design, which has resulted in bufferbloat across the Internet. This increases the delay across the network eventually leading to packet loss. If QOS is configured correctly in the network, time sensitive packets get priority and playout is smooth.  Many techniques such as Active Queue Management and Controlled Delay tend to reduce the effects of bufferbloat. The random drop of packets and static value of queue size adopted in these methods do not support real-time traffic. In this paper Adaptive Controlled delay algorithm has been proposed to overcome the drawbacks of the existing methods and provide a better Quality of Service for real-time video.

 Real-time video, Bufferbloat, Controlled Delay, Adaptive Controlled Delay


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10.     G.Vu-Brugier, R. S. Stanojevic, D.J.Leith and R.N.Shorten, “A critique of recently proposed buffer-sizing strategies,” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications Review, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 43-47, Jan. 2007.

11.     M. Wang and Y. Ganjali, “The effects of fairness in buffer sizing,” Proc.IFIP NETWORKING, Atlanta, USA, May 2007.

12.     Arun Vishwanath, Vijay Sivaraman and George N. Rouskasz, “Considerations for Sizing Buffers in Optical Packet Switched Networks ,”  Citeseer, 2009.

13.     Jim Gettys, Kathleen Nichols, “Bufferbloat: Dark Buffers in the Internet,”    in ACMQueue, Vol. 9 No. 11 – November 2011, pp. 15–64.

14.     Haiqing Jiang, Zeyu Liu, Yaogong Wang, Kyunghan Lee and Injong Rhee, “Understanding Bufferbloat in Cellular Networks,” CellNet '12 Proceedings of the 2012 ACM SIGCOMM workshop on Cellular networks: operations, challenges, and future design, pp 1-6.

15.     Lakkakorpi, J.; Sayenko, A.; Karhula, J.; Alanen, O.; Moilanen, J., "Active Queue Management for Reducing Downlink Delays in WiMAX," Vehicular Technology Conference, 2007. VTC-2007 Fall. 2007 IEEE 66th , vol., no., pp.326,330, Sept. 30 2007-Oct. 3 2007.

16.     W.-c. Feng, M. Fisk, M. K. Gardner, and E. Weigle. “Dynamic Right-Sizing: An Automated, Lightweight, and Scalable Technique for Enhancing Grid Performance” Proceedings of the 7th IFIP/IEEE International Workshop on Protocols for High Speed Networks (PIHSN), pages 69–83, 2002.

17.     Kathleen Nichols and Van Jackobson,  “Controlling Queue Delay” Communications of the ACM, Volume 55, Issue 7, pages 42-50, 2012

18.     Richard Chirgwin, “Researchers propose  solution to Bufferbloat” http://www.theregister.co.uk/2012/05/09/bufferbloat_and_codel, , 9th May 2012.

19.     netalyzr.icsi.berkeley.edu

20.     www.pingplotter.com

21.     www.wireshark.org

22.     Matilda, S., Palaniappan, B., Cross Layered Hybrid Transport Layer Protocol Approach To Enhance Network Utilisation For Video Traffic. ICTACT Journal on Communication Technology. Volume1 Issue 1, March 2010, pp. 54-60.





Namitha Sona, Shantharama Rai.c

Paper Title:

Fuzzy Logic Controller for the Speed Control of an IC Engine using Matlab Simulink

Abstract: the use of graphical dynamic system simulation software is becoming more popular as engines try to reduce the time to develop new control system. Dynamic system simulation software is an important tool and developing advanced reliable and high quality products and systems. This paper explains about one of the a tool MATLAB/SIMULINK used and the study of system dynamics of a four stroke IC engine which will give clear idea about speed control of IC engine using fuzzy logic. A Fuzzy Logic controller is thereby developed to control the speed of the IC Engine with variable load conditions.

  internal combustion(IC) engine, fuzzy logic controller. Matlab /simulink


1.  C.A. Rabbath, H. Desira and K. Butts,“Effective Modeling and Simulation of    Internal Combustion Engine Control System,” Proc. the American Control Conf. Arlington, VA June 25-27,2001.
2.  P.R. Crossley and J.A. Cook, “A Nonlinear Engine Model for Drive Train System Development,” IEE International Conf.’Control 91’, Vol. 2, pp. 921-925, March 25-28, 1991,Edinburgh, U.K.

3.  J. J. Moskwa and J. K. Hedrick, "Automotive Engine Modeling for Real Time  Control Application," Proc.1987 ACC, pp. 341-346.





Sachin Goyal, Mukul Gaur, Sulata Bhandari

Paper Title:

Power Regulation of a Wind Turbine Using Adaptive Fuzzy- PID Pitch Angle Controller

Abstract:   This paper considers power generation control in variable pitch wind turbines, using an adaptive fuzzy-PID controller. The pitch angle control system was simulated using MATLAB/ SIMULINK tool to test the control strategy and performance evaluation of the system. To test the controller’s performance, a wind profile has been simulated and results are validated to show that the proposed controllers are effective for power regulation. To highlight the improvements of the method the proposed controller are compared to the conventional PID controller.

   Adaptive control, Fuzzy controller, PID- controller, Pitch control, Wind turbine


1.     Vladislav Akhmatov, “Variable-Speed Wind Turbines with Doubly-Fed Induction Generators--Part 1: Modelling in Dynamic Simulation Tools”. Wind Engineering, 2002,vol 26.2, pp 85-108.
2.     Francoise  Mei,  “Small  Signal  Modeling  and  Analysis  of  Doubly  Fed  Induction Generator in Wind Power Applications,” Ph.D. dissertation, Control and Power Group Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Imperial College London, University of London.

3.     Bijaya Pokharel, “Modeling, Control And Analysis of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Turbine System With Voltage Regulation” M.S. dissertation, Deptt. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Faculty of Graduate school, Tennessee Technological University . Dec-2011.

4.     Jajun Xi, Bin Sun and Huaqi Zhao, “Adaptive PID Controller based on Single Neuron for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine”, Electrical Power Automation Equipment, Vol.23, No. 10, 2003, pp. 59-61.

5.     Xingjia Yao, Z. Zhang and C. Zhang, “The Study of Adaptive Independence Electrical Drive Blade Pitch Control Technology”, Proceeding of International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, 2007, pp. 828-833.

6.     Linjing Hu, Dongmin Xi and Tao Liu, “Research of Wind Generation Pitch System Bases on Fuzzy Adaptive PID”, 2nd International conference on intelligent control and Information Processing, 2011, pp. 97-100.

7.     Danish Wind Industry Association. Know How: Guided tour [online]. Available: http://www.windpower.org.

8.     Wind Energy Background [Online]. Available: http://www.dolcera.com.

9.     Asynchronous Generators [Online]. Available: http://www.windturbines.net.

10.  Jainguang Qi and Yongxin Liu, ”PID Control in Adjustable-pitch Wind Turbine System Based on Fuzzy Control.” Proceedings of 2nd International conference on Industrial Mechatronics and Automation, 2010, pp 341-344.





Mukul Gaur, Sachin Goyal, Sulata Bhandari,

Paper Title:

Effect of Time Delay on Robust PID Controllers for a Transfer Function

Abstract:    A controller designed for a nominal process model generally works fine for the nominal plant model, but may fail even by a slight change in it. Robust control deals with system analysis and control design for such imperfectly known process models. Robust control has been a recent addition to the field of control engineering that primarily deals with obtaining system robustness in the presence of uncertainties. A lot of research has been done and many approaches are available for robust design of the plants. In this paper, a graphical technique introduced in [1] to find all proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers that satisfy the robust stability constraint of a given single input-single-output (SISO) linear time-invariant (LTI) system with time delay[1], is followed and effects of change of time-delay in the nominal plant model is discussed..

H∞ control, Robust stability, small gain theorem, time-delay.


1.        Emami, T. and J.M. Watkins, “Robust stability design of PID controllers for arbitrary-order transfer functions with uncertain time delay,” Southeastern Symposium on System Theory University of Tennessee Space Institute, March 2009.
2.        Qing-Chang Zhong, Robust stability of time delay systems, Springer-Verlag London Limited 2006. Chapters 1,2 pp. 1-40.  Available: http://pcwww.liv.ac.uk/~zhongqc/delay/Contents.pdf

3.        Peter Dorato, “A historical review of robust control”, control systems magazine (volume 7, issue 2), april 1987.

4.        G. Zames, “Functional Analysis Applied to Nonlinear Feedback Systems,” IEEE Trans.. Circuit Theory. Vol. CT-10, pp. 392-4134, Sept. 1963.

5.        R. E. Kalman, “When is a linear control system optimal?” Trans. ASME, Ser. D,J. Basic Engr, vol. 86, pp. 5 1-60, March 1964.

6.        Dorf Richard C. and Robert H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, 9th ed., Prentice–Hall Inc., New Jersey-07458, USA, 2001, Chapters 1, 5, pp. 1-23, pp. 173-206.

7.        Skogestad, S. and I. Postlethwaite, Multivariable Feedback Control, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins lane, Chicester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, England, 2001, Chapters 2, 7, pp. 15-62, pp. 253-290.

8.        Doyle, J., Bruce Francis,and Allen Tannenbaum, Feedback control theory, macmillan Publishing Co., 1990. Available: :http://www.control.utoronto.ca/people/profs/francis/dft.pdf

9.        Bhattacharyya, S.P., Chapellat, H., and L.H. Keel, Robust Control: The Parametric Approach, Prentice Hall, N.J., 1995.

10.     Sujoldzic, S. and J.M. Watkins, “Stabilization of an arbitrary order transfer function with time delay using PI and PD controllers,” Proc. of American Control Conference, June 2006, pp. 2427-2432.

11.     Sujoldzic S. and J.M. Watkins, “Stabilization of an arbitrary order transfer function with time delay using PID controller,” Proc. of IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control, Vol. 45, December 2005.

12.     Emami, T. and J.M. Watkins, “Weighted sensitivity design of PID controllers for arbitrary-order transfer functions with time-delay,” Proc. of the IASTED
nternational Conf. on Intelligent Systems and Control, November 2008, pp 20-25.

13.     Emami, T. and J.M. Watkins, “Complementary sensitivity design of PID controllers for arbitrary-order transfer functions with time delay,” Proc. of 2008 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conf., October 2008.

14.     Emami, T. and J.M. Watkins, “Robust performance characterization of PID controllers in the frequency domain,” WSEAS Transactions Journal of Systems and Control, Vol. 4, No. 5, May 2009, pp. 232-242.

15.     Manoj Gogoi,“PID controllers design for robust stability of arbitrary order plant with time delay and additive uncertainty”. Available: http://engineering.wichita.edu/esawan/gogoi.pdf.

16.     “Basics of electrical machines”. Available: http://www.reliance.com/mtr/mtrthrmn.htm.

17.     TreurnichtJ.,Robust Control Systems—Usingthe Matlab toolbox.Available:http://courses.ee.sun.ac.za/Robuuste_Beheerstelsels_813/images/robustexample32007.pdf..






Kunatsa T, Mufundirwa A

Paper Title:

Biogas Production from Water Hyacinth Case of Lake Chivero - Zimbabwe A review

Abstract  The purpose of this study was to review the energy situation in Zimbabwe as well as the possibility of producing biogas from water hyacinth. Zimbabwe faces a shortage of electrical energy owing to internal generation shortfalls and the country imports all its petroleum fuels at a huge cost.The majority of people in Zimbabwe as a developing country are dependent on traditional and inefficient energy services that constrain their ability to enhance economic productivity and quality of life. The water hyacinth weed has invaded approximately all rivers, lakes and dams in Zimbabwe and government authorities are relying on research institutions to come up with solutions to deal with this invasive weed. The costs connected with elimination and maintenance control of water hyacinth are quite considerable. This study found out that the option of biogas production as a way of energy exploration using water hyacinth may not only sustain the energy availability but also improve environmental sustainability by improving the social, economic and physical well being of the environment.

Biogas, Lake Chivero, Renewable energy, Water Hyacinth


1.        Kidunda RS, Osarya J (2005). Potential of water hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes) in ruminant nutrition in Tanzania. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 5: 17.
2.        A.Jagadeesh, 2012. Invasive Water Hyacinths for Renewable Energy in China

3.        Ali N, Chaudhary BL, Khandelwal SK (2004). Better use of water hyacinth for fuel, manure and pollution free environment. Indian J. Environ. Prot., 24: 297–303.

4.        Barrett S.C.H. 1980a. Sexual reproduction in Eichhornia crassipes (water Hyacinth). 1. Fertility of clones from diverse regions. Journal of Applied Ecology 17:101-112.

5.        Barrett S.C.H. 1980b. Sexual reproduction in Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth). II. Seed production in natural populations. The Journal of Applied Ecology 17:113-124.

6.        Bartodziej W. & Weymouth G. (1995) Waterbird abundance and activity on water-hyacinth and Egeria in the St-Marks River, Florida. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 33, 19-22.

7.        Brendonck L., Maes J., Rommens W., Dekeza N., Nhiwatiwa T., Barson M., Callebaut V., Phiri C., Moreau K., Gratwicke B., Stevens M., Alyn N., Holsters E., Ollevier F. & Marshall B. (2003) The impact of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in a eutrophic subtropical impoundment (Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe). II. Species diversity. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie, 158, 389-405.

8.        Center T.D. (ed.) (1994) Biological Control of weeds: water hyacinth and water lettuce. Intercept, Andover.

9.        Chatterji, A.C , (2005). Introduction to Environmental Biotechnology.

10.     Chigbo F.E. Smith, R.W, F.L. (1982), Environmental Pollution

11.     Chikwenhere G.P, Phiri G, 2010. History of water hyacinth and its control efforts on Lake Chivero in Zimbabwe

12.     de Casabianca M.-L. and T. Laugier. 1995. Eichhornia crassipes production on petroliferous wastewaters: effects of salinity. Bioresource Technology 54:39-43.

13.     Elias Jigar (2010) Study on Renewable Biogas Energy Production from Cladodes of

14.     Farrell, A.E., Plevin, R.J., Turner, B.T., Jones, A.D., O’Hare, M., Kammen, D.M. 2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals.

15.     Gibbons M., Gibbons Jr. H. & Sytsma M. (1994) A Citizen's Manual for Developing Integraed Aquatic Vegetation Management Plans. in Water Environmental
Services. Available Water Environmental Services.

16.     Gopal, B., (1987). Water Hyacinth, Aquatic Plant Studies Series Elsevier Amsterdam.

17.     Gopal, B., 1987. Water Hyacinth. Elsevier, New York.

18.     Goswami T, Saikia CN (1994). Water hyacinth—a potential source of raw material for greaseproof paper. Bioresour. Technol., 50: 235–238.

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20.     International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna (IAEA). 2005

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22.     Kittiphop Promdee, Tharapong Vitidsant, and Supot Vanpetch, (2012). Comparative Study of Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Bio-Oil from Manila Grass and Water Hyacinth Transformed by Pyrolysis Process

23.     Lu JB, Fu ZH, Yin ZZ (2008) Performance of a water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) system in the treatment of wastewater from a duck farm and the effects of using water hyacinth as duck feed.

24.     Malik A (2007). Environmental challenge vis a vis opportunity: The case of water hyacinth. Environ. Int., 33: 122-138.

25.     Mangas-Ramirez E. & Elias-Gutierrez M. (2004) Effect of mechanical removal of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on the water quality and biological communities in a Mexican reservoir. Journal of Aquatic Health and Management, 7 161-168.

26.     Mitchell D.S. 1976. The growth and management of Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia spp. In their native environment and in alien situations.

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30.     Parisi, F., 1989. Advances in lignocellulosics hydrolysis and in the utilization of the hydrolysates.  

31.     Pinto, C.R.L.R., Carconia, A. and Souza, M.M. (1987)

32.     Sajn SA, Bulc TG, Vrhovsek D (2005). Comparison of nutrient cycling in a surface flow constructed wetland and in a facultative pond treating secondary effluent. Water Sci. Technol., 51: 291–298.

33.     Shoeb F, Singh HJ(2002) Kinetic studies of biogas evolved from water hyacinth 2nd International Symposium on New Technologies for Environmental Monitoring and Agro – Applications pp 138

34.     Szczeck MM (1999). Suppressiveness of vermicompost against fusarium wilt of tomato. J. Phytopathol. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 47: 155–161.

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Radhamani R, Keshaveni

Paper Title:

FPGA implementation of Efficient and High Speed Template Matching Module

Abstract   Template Matching is a digital image processing technique used in classifying objects .Due to changing intensity and template size the computational complexity increases. In our project we have simplified the original normalized cross-correlation (NCC) algorithm and designed a parallel processing pipelined architecture circuit to improve the computational speed and accuracy .This template matching module can be used in all types of vision applications, pattern recognition and elastic matching.

 Image processing, mean, Normalized cross-correlation, template matching


2.       Nikolić D, Muresan RC, Feng W, Singer W (2012) Scaled correlation analysis: a better way to compute a cross-correlogram. European Journal of Neuroscience, pp. 1–21,

3.       Real time FPGA based template matching module for Visual Inspection Application. Jiun-Yan Chen,Kuo-Feng Hung,Chin-Chia Wu

4.       Chin, Automated Visual Inspection: A Survey IEEE PAMI 1982

5.       Tsai, D.-M., Chiang, C.-H., 2002. Rotation-invariant pattern matching using wavelet decomposition. Pattern Recognition Lett. 23, 191–201. Wakahara, T., Kimura, Y., Tomono, A., 2001. Affine-invariant recognition of gray-scale characters using global affine transformationcorrelation. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 23, 384–395.

6.       Kim, J.H., Cho, H.S., Kim, S., 1996. Pattern classification of solder joint images using a correlation neural network. Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell9, 655–669.

7.       Cai, X.Y., Kvasnik, F., Blore, R.W., 1994. Wafer fault measurement bycoherent optical processor. Appl. Opt. 33, 4487–4496.

8.       Stefano, “An Efficient Algorithm for exhaustive template matching based on normalized cross correlation”. IEEE ICIAP03

9.       Xiaotao Wang, Xingbo Wang, "FPGA Based Parallel Architectures fo Normalized Cross-Correlation", The 1st International Conference on Information Science and Engineering (ICISE2009), pp. 225 - 229

10.    Nisheeth Gupta, Nikhil Gupta, "A VLSI Architecture for Image Registration in Real Time," IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 9SEPTEMBER 2007

11.    "Robot vision system with a correlation chip for real time tracking, optical flow, and depth map generation", 1992 IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation, Nice, April 1992.

12.    Principles of Communication Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, 1965.

13.    Binford, T., (1982) "Survey of Model Based Image Analysis Systems", International Journal of Robotics Research, 1(18), 1982.






Arvind Yadav, Jagdish Kumar

Paper Title:

Harmonic Reduction in Cascaded Multilevel Inverter

Abstrac:  This paper presents method of selecting switching angles of a cascaded multilevel inverter so as to produce required fundamental voltage along with improved staircase waveform in terms of harmonics. Cascaded multilevel inverter uses number of DC sources, for k sources number of levels will be 2k+1 and leads to k number of non-linear equations to be solved. Many approaches can be made regarding the solution but this paper focuses on Specific Harmonic Elimination (SHE) technique for angle optimization. Newton-Raphson method is used and the difficulty with this method is a closed initial guess. Variation of angles with modulation index is observed and THD is calculated for selected modulation indexes and all attempts are made so as to get lowest THD. Results are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

   Cascaded multilevel inverter, SHE, Switching angles, THD.


1.       C. Schauder et al., “Development of a 100 MVAR static condenser for voltage control of transmission systems,” presented at the IEEE PES Summer Power Meeting, San Francisco, CA, July 24–28, 1994, Paper 94SM479-6PWRD.
2.       F. Z. Peng and J. Lai, “Application considerations and compensation characteristics of shunt active and series active filters in power systems,” in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Harmonics and Quality Power, Las Vegas, NV, Oct. 16–18, 1996, pp. 12–20.

3.       F. G. Turnbull, “Selected harmonic reduction in static DC-AC inverters,”IEEE Trans. Commun. Electron., vol. 83, no. 73, pp. 374–378, Jul. 1964.

4.       The Math Works, MATLAB User’s Manual Optimization Toolbox/SIMULINK Power SystemBlock Set v7, Natick, MA: Author, 2006.

5.       J. Chiasson, L. M. Tolbert, K. McKenzie, and Z. Du, “Harmonic elimination in multilevel converters,” in Proc. 7th IASTED Int. Multi-Conf. Power and Energy System (PES), Palm Springs, CA, Feb. 2003, pp. 284–289.

6.       N. A. Azli and S. N. Wong, “Development of a DSP-based fuzzy PI controller for an online optimal PWM control scheme for a multilevel inverter,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Power Electron. Drives Syst. (PEDS), Nov.2005, vol. 2, pp. 1457–1462.

7.       J. Holtz and J. O. Krah, “Adaptive optimal pulse-width modulation for the line-side converter of electric locomotives,” IEEE Trans. Power Elecron., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 205–211, Jan. 1992. 

8.       B. Ozpineci, L. M. Tolbert, and J. N. Chiasson, “Harmonic optimization of multilevel converters using genetic algorithms,” IEEE Power Electron. Lett., vol. 3, no. 3,
pp. 92–95, Sep. 2005.

9.       M. S. A. Dahidah and V. G. Agelidis, “Selective harmonic elimination PWM control for cascaded multilevel voltage source converters: A generalized formula,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1620– 1630, Jul. 2008.






Swati Mishra, Siddharth Bali

Paper Title:

Harmonic Reduction in Cascaded Multilevel Inverter

Abstrac:   Cryptography is an imperative tool for protecting and securing data. Security provides safety and reliability. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is typically used to obtain solution for optimization and search problems. This paper presents application of GA in the field of cryptography. Key Selection in public key cryptography is a selection process in which keys can be categorized on the basis of their fitness, making GA a good candidate for key generation. Primary goals of our algorithm was to provide fast and improved performance results having practical and feasible implementation. GA correlates nature to a great extent and produce population of keys such that keys with higher fitness value is replicated often. Good Fitness function helps in exploring search space more efficiently and effectively while bad fitness function traps GA operating in local optimum solution and losing its discovery power. Pearson’s Coefficient of auto-correlation was used to calculate the fitness of keys. Ranking of keys was performed to find the best fit key. The private key generated cannot be derived from public key. The key samples satisfy gap and frequency test. Thus, purely random and non-repeating final keys were obtained by application of GA which increased the keys strength and security.

    About four key words or phrases in alphabetical order, separated by commas.


1.    Omran, S.S.; Al-Khalid, A.S.; Al-Saady, D. M., "A cryptanalytic attack on Vigenère cipher using genetic algorithm," Open Systems (ICOS), 2011 IEEE Conference on, vol., no., pp.59,64, 25-28 Sept. 2011.
2.    Goyat, S., “Cryptography Using Genetic Algorithms (GAs). ” IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSRJCE), Volume 1, Issue 5 , Volume 1, Issue 5 , June 2012.

3.    Delman, B., “Genetic Algorithms in Cryptography.” Master of Science in Computer Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, July 2004.

4.    Som, S.; Chatergee, N.S.; Mandal, J.K., "Key based bit level genetic cryptographic technique (KBGCT)," Information Assurance and Security (IAS), 2011 7th International Conference on , vol., no., pp.240,245, 5-8 Dec. 2011.

5.    Goyat, S., “GENETIC KEY GENERATION FOR PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY.” International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE), Volume 2, Issue 3, July 2012.

6.    Sharma, L.; Pathak, B. K.; Sharma, R., “Breaking of Simplified Data Encryption Standard Using Genetic Algorithm ”, Global Journal Of Computer Science And Technology, Volume 12, Issue 5, Version 1.0, March 2012.

7.    Khan F. U.; Bhatia, S., “A NOVEL APPROACH TO GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY ”, International Journal of Research in Computer Science, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp. 7-10, 2012.

8.    Bhasin, H.; Bhatia, S., “Application of Genetic Algorithms in Machine learning”, IJCSIT, Vol. 2 (5), 2011.

9.    Goldberg, D E., Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning. Reading, MA. : Addison-Wesley, 1989. Stallings, W., “Cryptography and Network Security : Principles and Practice”, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall. Boston Columbus Indianapolis






Niketa N, Shantharama Rai.C

Paper Title:

Design and Modeling of Fuzzy Logic Based Voltage Controller for an Alternator

Abstrac:    Wide range of electrical apparatus used in industrial application require automatic voltage regulator for stability purpose. As the loud on an alternator is varied, its terminal voltage is also found to vary. This variation terminal voltage is due to voltage drop in armature and armature reaction, therefore this paper aims to design voltage regulator to maintain the terminal voltage of alternator at constant value at load condition. The armature voltage of a synchronous generator is controlled by varying the field voltage using fuzzy logic based control method. Voltage difference between the immediate output voltage and the rated voltage of the generator is used to process the rate of change of voltage error. The amount of armature voltage that has to be applied to the alternator is varied by the controller to keep the output of alternator at its rated value. The system is designed and simulated using MATLAB simulink.

 alternator, fuzzy logic controller (FLC), voltage control.


1.        Brock J. LaMeres.,” Design and     implementation of a fuzzy logic based voltage regulation of a synchronous            generator”, Montana state university.
2.        Hasan, Abul R., Martis, Thomas S., Sadrul, A.H.M, “Design and Implementation of a Fuzzy Controller Based Automatic Voltage Regulator for a Synchronous Generator”,IEEE Transactions on Electrical Machinery,                Vol.9, No.6, Sep. 1994

3.        Spoljaric, Zeljko ; Miklosevic, Kresimir & Jerkovic, Vedrana, “Synchronous Generator Modeling Using Matlab.






Vijaykumar  Kulkarni , Pradip Katti

Paper Title:

Policies and Strategies for the Improvement in Energy Efficiency in Industries – Indian Experience

Abstrac:  Energy has become the basic need of human beings. With technological advancements the supply-demand gap is alarmingly increasing globally. This causes burden on the nation like increase in generation capacity or energy import. Energy policies and regulations are framed by various nations. Majority of energy is consumed by industrial sector. An effort  in energy conservation by improving the energy efficiency in industries in the light of these policies and  strategies formed for industries to improve the energy efficiency can be effective. In this paper, the energy policies of some nations including India are discussed. Energy saving strategies for industries  are proposed. Energy efficiency  can be improved by these strategies. A sample case study in an industry  and the results show that  the operation of the equipment and machineries in accordance with the policies and regulations has resulted in 12% of  average saving in energy with less or no investments.

 Energy conservation, energy policies, energy strategies, energy saving


1.          V. A. Kulkarni and  P. K. Katti , Energy Strategies for India under Perspective Energy Scenario ’,  International Journal of Energy Science IJES IJES Vol.2 Iss.4 2012 pp.133-140 www.ijesci.org  World Academic Publishing .
2.          Challenges in meeting increasing power demand  of developing economics without  damaging the environment  - Siong Lee Koh  and  YunSeng Lim,  2010 IEEE Int. Conf. on Power  and energy (PECon2010) 29Nov-1Dec 2010 Malaysia, pp923

3.          ‘ Policies for the future 2011 Assessment of country energy and climate policies’  World Energy Council(WEC) publication, 2011.

4.          Understanding China’s Energy Policy - Economic Growth and Energy Use, Fuel Diversity,  Energy/Carbon Intensity, and International Cooperation’ Background Paper Research   Centre for Sustainable Development, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China

5.          ‘Energy in Australia 2011 ‘ Department of Resources, GPO Box 1563 Energy and Tourism, Government of Australia, 2011.

6.          ’World Energy Assessment: Overview 2004 Update’ United Nations Development     Programme, 2004.

7.          ‘WWF the energy report 100%  renewable energy ‘ WWF International  pub. 2011

8.          V. A.Kulkarni and. P.K.Katti, ‘ Efficient Utilization of Energy In Industry – Energy Management  Perspective’ IEEE International Conference on  ‘ Power Systems Technology    (POWERCON2010)  China, 24- 28 Oct 2010  pp. 259.

9.          V.   A.Kulkarni and. P.K.Katti, ‘ Improvement of Energy Efficiency In         Industries By Facility Based Energy    Management’ IEEE International Conference on Energy, Automation and Signals(ICEAS2011), Bubaneshwar India, 28-30 Dec2011

10.       WWF the energy report 100%  renewable energy ‘ WWF International  pub. 2011

11.       Electricity and energy policy’ IEEE  www.electripedia.us

12.       ‘Policies for the future 2011 Assessment of country energy and climate policies’  World Energy Council(WEC) publication, 2011.

13.       Ram Ganesh Yadav, Anjan Roy, S A Khaparde and Polgani Pentayya ,‘India’s fast growing power sector’ IEEE Power and energy magazine July/Aug2005, pp.39

14.       ‘The Brookings Foreign Policy Studies Energy Security Series: India—Executive Summary’,Tanvi Madan, The Brookings Institutions, USA publication, November 2006

15.       ‘Energy in India’s future – insights’ , Jacques Lesourne and William C. Ramsay The    Institute Français des Relations Internationales (IFRI), Paris, France, 2009

16.       India National Electricity Policy , Electricity act2003(EA2003) and Energy conservation act 2001(EC2001), Government of India






Shashikant Pandey, Suman Kant, Vinod Mishra, Neha Khatri, Sarepaka.V.Ramagopal

Paper Title:

Parametric Optimization of Ball End Magneto Rheological Finishing Process on EN-31

Abstrac:   This work is concerned to explore the effect of process parameters of the ball end magnetorheologial finishing on the magnetic work piece to achieve nanofinishing. Magnetizing Current, working gap and Nozzle speed have been considered as input parameters; however percent improvement in surface roughness considered as an outcome of the process. In Present work the experiments have been carried out with above mentioned input process parameters with the help of the standard L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi .The measurement of the surface roughness is taken with the help of contact type Contact Mechanical Profiler PGI 120. Experimental data has been analyzed by using pooled anova for finding the contribution of input parameters, and further searching best input values to obtain optimal/near optimal output value. In the end a generic input-output relation has been developed using regression analysis to predict output value for newer input values.

Magneto rheological finishing, Surface roughness, Taguchi method, ANOVA, Regression model


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2.        K. Singh, Sunil Jha, P.M. Pandey “Improved ball end magnetorheological finishing process” Proceedings of the ASME 2011

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7.        M. Das, V.K. Jain, and  P.S. Ghoshdastidar   (2009). “Parametric study of process parameters and characterization of surface texture using rotational- magnetorehological abrasive flow finishing(R-MRAFF).” Proceeding of the ASME 2009 International manufacturing science and engineering conference, MSEC 2009
October 4-7, 2009 West Lafayette, IN                                                                       .

8.        W. L. Song, C.Q. Chai, , S.b. Choi and Lee C.H.  “A study of finishing process of magneto- rheological fluid on steel surface.” International Journal of Civil Engineering and Building Materials (ISSN 2223-487X) Vol.1No.1 (2011)

9.        Taguchi G, “Introduction to quality engineering”, (Asian Productivity Organization, Tokyo, (1990).

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Thumpi.R, Manjula R.B, Sunilkumar S.Manvi

Paper Title:

A Survey on Routing Protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

Abstrac:   Underwater communication in recent times has gained great importance owing to reasons varying from predicting natural disasters to formulating strategic defence systems. Underwater communication systems face challenges ranging higher propagation delays to frequency related constraints like bandwidth limitations, Doppler spread, multipath propagation and is greatly affected by distance between nodes and link orientation. This call for the formation of most appropriate routing protocol for UASN. This paper explores the significant advantages, disadvantages and applications of different existing routing protocols

  Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs), Acoustic Communication


1.       Ocean Engineering at Florida Atlantic University,Available online at :http//www.oe.fau.edu/research/ams.html
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3.       J.H.Cui,J.Kong .M.Gerla and S.Zhou,Challenges : Building scalable mobile underwater wireless sensor networks for aquatic applications, IEEE Network, Special issue on wireless sensor networking,pp. 12-18,2006

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5.       Akyildiz IF, Pompili D, Melodia T. State-of-the-art in protocol research for underwater acoustic sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM international
workshop on underwater networks. ACM: Los Angeles (CA, USA); 2006.

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7.       Manjula R.B, Sunilkumar S.Manvi,Issues in UASNs,International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering,Vol 3,No.1 February,2011

8.       Mohd.Ehmer khan , Farmeena khan , An Empirical study of UASN and Terrestrial network, IJCSI International journal of Computer Science issues, Vol.9,Issue 1,No.1,January 2012

9.       Pompili D. Efficient communication protocols for underwater acoustic sensor networks. School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology; 2007.

10.    Heidemann J, et al. Research challenges and applications for underwater sensornetworking. In: Proceedings of the IEEE wireless communications and networking conference, WCNC; 2006.

11.    Quazi A, Konrad W. Underwater acoustic communications. Commun Mag, IEEE 1982;20(2):24–30.

12.    Ovaliadis K, N.S.a.V.K. Energy efficiency in underwater sensor networks: a research review. J Eng Sci Technol Rev 2010;3(1):151–6.

13.    Xie P, Cui J-H, Lao L. VBF: vector-based forwarding protocol for underwater sensor networks.Networking 2006. Networking technologies, services, and protocols;

14.    performance of computer and communication networks; mobile and wireless communications systems. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer; 2006a. p.1216–1221

15.    Nikolaou N, et al. Improving the robustness of location-based routing for underwater sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the OCEANS.– Europe; 2007.

16.    Jornet JM, Stojanovic M, Zorzi M.    Focused beam routing protocol for underwater acoustic networks.    In: Proceedings of the third ACM international
workshop on Underwater Networks. San Francisco (California, USA): ACM; 2008.

17.    Jinming C, Xiaobing W, Guihai C. REBAR: a reliable and energy balanced routing algorithm for UWSNs. In: Proceedings of the seventh international conference on grid and cooperative computing, GCC ’08; 2008.

18.    Chirdchoo, N, Wee-Seng S, Kee Chaing C. Sector-based routing with destination location prediction for underwater mobile networks. In: Proceedings of the international conference on advanced information networking and applications workshops, WAINA ’09; 2009.

19.    Daeyoup H, Dongkyun K. DFR: directional flooding-based routing protocol for  underwater sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the OCEANS; 2008.

20.    Carlson EA, Beau jean PP, An E. Location-aware routing protocol for underwateracoustic networks. In: Proceedings of the OCEANS; 2006.

21.    Yan H, Shi ZJ, Cui J-H. DBR: depth-based routing for underwater sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 7th international IFIP-TC6 networking conference on adhoc and sensor networks, wireless networks, next generation internet. Singapore: Springer-Verlag; 2008.

22.    Uichin L, et al. Pressure routing for underwater sensor networks. In: Proceedings of  the IEEE, INFOCOM; 2010.

23.    Zheng G, et al. Adaptive routing in underwater delay/disruption tolerant sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the fifth annual conference on wireless on demand network systems and services, WONS; 2008.

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26.    Ayaz M, Abdullah A, Low Tang J. Temporary cluster based routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Information Technology (ITSim); 2010.

27.    Chitre M, et al. Underwater acoustic communications and networking: recent advances and future challenges. In: Proceedings of the OCEANS; 2008.

28.    Basagni S, et al. Choosing the packet size in multi-hop underwater networks.In: Proceedings of the IEEE, OCEANS. Sydney; 2010

29.    Basagni S, et al. Optimizing network performance through packet fragmentation in multi-hop underwater communications. In: Proceedings of the IEEE, OCEANS.Sydney; 2010.

30.    Bin Z, Sukhatme GS, Requicha AA. Adaptive sampling for marine microorganism monitoring. In: Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2004); 2004.

31.    Ayaz M, Abdullah A, Faye I. Hop-by-hop reliable data     deliveries for underwater wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Broadband, Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications(BWCCA); 2009.

32.    Domingo MC, Prior R. Energy analysis of routing protocols for underwater wireless sensor networks. Comput Commun 2008;31(6):1227–1238.

33.    Domingo MC, Prior R. A distributed clustering scheme for underwater wireless sensor networks. in personal, indoor and mobile radio communications. In: Proceedings of the IEEE 18th International Symposium on PIMRC; 2007.

34.    Peng X, et al. Efficient vector-based forwarding for underwater sensor networks. Hindawi Publishing Corporation; 2010. doi:10.1155/2010/195910.

35.    Erol M, Oktug S. A localization and routing framework for mobile underwater sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM workshops; 2008.

36.    Ethem M, Sozer MS, Proakis John G. Underwater acoustic networks. IEEE J Oceanic Eng 2000;25(1).

37.    Harris AR, Zorzi M. On the design of energy-efficient routing protocols in underwater networks. In: Proceedings of the 4th annual IEEE communications society
conference on sensor, mesh and ad hoc communications and networks, SECON ’07; 2007.

38.    Heinzelman WB, Chandrakasan AP, Balakrishnan H. An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks. Wireless Communication 2002;1(4):660–70

39.    Jain E, Qilian L. Sensor placement and lifetime of wireless sensor networks: theory and performance analysis. In: Proceedings of the IEEE global telecommunications conference, GLOBECOM ’05; 2005.

40.    Jiang Z. Underwater acoustic networks—issues and solutions. Int J Intell ControlSyst 2008:152–6113 2008:152–61.

41.    Jiejun K, et al. Building underwater ad-hoc networks and sensor networks for large scale real-time aquatic applications. In: Proceedings of the IEEE military communications conference, MILCOM; 2005.

42.    Johnson DB, Maltz DA, Broch J. DSR: the dynamic source routing protocol for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. Ad hocnetworking.Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc; 2001. p. 139–72

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44.    Kai Chen YZ, He Jianhua. A localization scheme for underwater wireless sensor networks. Int J Adv Sci Technol 2009;4.

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Swati Singh, Gaurav Dubey

Paper Title:

Finding Interest of People in Purchasing Real Estate by Using Data Mining Techniques

Abstrac:   Data mining is the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases; it is a powerful technology with great potential to help organizations focus on the most important information in their data warehouses. Data mining tools predict future trends and behaviours, helps organizations to make proactive knowledge-driven decisions. Hence by using data mining techniques we predict the interest of people in real estate and their pattern of purchasing them. The data has collected by moving the questionnaire among the people. We used two data mining techniques that classify the data based on certain attributes, are classification (Zeror classifier) and clustering (simple k means). And then based on their result several bar charts have been drawn.

  Data mining tools predict future trends and behaviours, helps organizations to make proactive knowledge-driven decisions.


1.       Jiawei Han and Micheline Kamber (2006), Data Mining Concepts and Techniques, published by Morgan Kauffman,2nd ed.
2.       Agrawal R, Imilienski T, Swami A (1993). Mining association rules between sets of items in large databases, In Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD international conference on management of data.

3.       Basaltoa N, Bellottib R, De Carlob F, Facchib P, Pascazio S (2005). Clustering stock market companies via chaotic map synchronization, Physica A.

4.       Berry MJA, Linoff GS (2000). Mastering data mining, New York: Wiley.

5.       Boris K, Evgenii V (2005). Data Mining for Financial Applications, the Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Handbook.

6.       Data mining: Ford, C.W.; Chia-Chu Chiang; Hao Wu; Chilka, R.R.; Talburt,J.R.; Information Technology: Coding and Computing, 2005. ITCC 2005 International Conference Volume: Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ITCC.2005.270 Publication Year: 2005 , Page(s): 122 - 127 Vol. 1






Zhenxing Luo

Paper Title:

Survey of Applications of Pupil Detection Techniques in Image and Video Processing

Abstrac:   This paper presents a variety of applications of the pupil detection techniques in image and Video processing. Moreover, the robust pupil detection techniques are also discussed. The purpose of this paper is to provide some background knowledge for new researchers in pupil detection area.

   Pupil detection, robust techniques, Iris recognition system, and Diabetic retinopathy. .


1.          L. Lin, P. Lin, L. Wei, and L. Yu, "A robust and accurate detection of pupil images," in Proc. of the 3rd International Conference on  Biomedical Engineering and Informatics (BMEI), pp.70-74, 16-18 Oct. 2010.
2.          G. Gomai, A. El-Zaart, H. Mathkour, "A new approach for pupil detection in iris recognition system," in Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on  Computer Engineering and Technology (ICCET), pp.V4-415, 16-18 April 2010.

3.          R. Kheirolahy, H. Ebrahimnezhad, and M. H. Sedaaghi, "Robust pupil boundary detection by optimized color mapping for iris recognition," in Proc. of the 14th International CSI Computer Conference (CSICC'09), pp.170-175, 20-21 Oct. 2009.

4.          G. Akinci, E. Polat, and O. M. Kocak, "Neuropsychiatric disorders classification using a video based pupil detection system," in Proc. of International Symposium on Innovations in Intelligent Systems and Applications (INISTA), pp.1-5, 2-4 July 2012.

5.          Ektesabi and A. Kapoor, "Exact pupil and iris boundary detection," in Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on  Control, Instrumentation and Automation (ICCIA), pp.1217-1221, 27-29 Dec. 2011.

6.          W. Aryaputera, X. Gao, W. Damon, Y. Sun, and Y. Wong, "Automatic pupil detection on retro-illumination lens images from a population-based study," in Proc. of 7th IEEE Conference on  Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), pp.1772-1777, 18-20 July 2012.

7.          H. Xinyu, T. Changpeng, Q. Hou, A. Tokuta, and R. Yang, "An experimental study of pupil constriction for liveness detection," in Proc. of IEEE Workshop on
Applications of Computer Vision (WACV), pp.252-258, 15-17 Jan. 2013.

8.          Y. Ebisawa, “Robust pupil detection by image difference with positional compensation”, in Proc. of IEEE Conference on Virtual Environments, Human-Computer Interfaces and Measurement Systems (VECIMS 2009), May 2009, Hong Kong, China.

9.          Yan, J. Li, S. Liu and H. Yuan, “A robust algorithm for pupil center detection,” in Proc. of 6th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), 21-23 June 2011, Beijing, China.

10.       S. Goni, J. Echeto, A. Villanueva, and R. Cabeza, "Robust algorithm for pupil-glint vector detection in a video-oculography eyetracking system," in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on  Pattern Recognition (ICPR 2004), pp.941-944, 23-26 Aug. 2004.

11.       Z. X. Luo, “Distributed Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks with Heterogeneous Sensors”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, Vol. 1, no.4, Sept. 2012

12.       Z. X. Luo, “Overview of Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, Vol. 1, no. 4, Sept.

13.       Z. X. Luo, “Parameter Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks with   Normally Distributed Sensor Gains”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering,
vol. 2, no. 6, Jan. 2013.

14.       Z. X. Luo, “Parameter Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Decisions Transmitted over Rayleigh Fading Channels”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 6, Jan. 2013.

15.       Z. X. Luo, “Distributed Estimation and Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences, vol. 1, no. 3, Feb. 2013.

16.       Z. X. Luo, “Anti-attack and Channel Aware Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks Deployed in Hostile Environments,” International Journal of
Engineering and Advanced Technology, vol. 1, no. 6, Aug. 2012.

17.       Z. X. Luo, “A New Direct Search Method for Distributed Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks,” International Journal of innovative technology and exploring engineering, vol. 1, no. 4, Sept. 2012.

18.       Z. X. Luo and T. C. Jannett, “Optimal threshold for locating targets within a surveillance region using a binary sensor network,” in Proc. of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 09), Dec. 2009.

19.       Z. X. Luo and T. C. Jannett, “A multi-objective method to balance energy consumption and performance for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. of the 2012 IEEE SoutheastCon, Orlando, FL, Mar. 2012.

20.       Z. X. Luo and T. C. Jannett, “Performance comparison between maximum likelihood and heuristic weighted average estimation methods for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. of the 2012 IEEE SoutheastCon, Orlando, FL, Mar. 2012.

21.       Z. X. Luo, “A censoring and quantization scheme for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks,” Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol.2, no.2, 2012.

22.       Z. X. Luo, “A coding and decoding scheme for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering, Vol.2, no. 4, Sept. 2012






Zhenxing Luo

Paper Title:

Survey of Networking Techniques for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

Abstrac:    This paper discusses some interesting aspects of wireless multimedia sensor networks, such as security, energy consumption and QoS. It can serve as an introductory material for new researchers. .

    wireless multimedia sensor networks, Quality of Service, energy consumption, and security .


1.       D. Ru, W. Pu, and I. F. Akyildiz, "Correlation-Aware QoS Routing for Wireless Video Sensor Networks," in Proc. of 2010 IEEE  Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2010), pp. 6-10 Dec. 2010.
2.       M. Younis, K. Akkaya,  M. Eltoweissy, and A. Wadaa, "On handling QoS traffic in wireless sensor networks,"  in Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 5-8, Jan. 2004.

3.       S. Guo and T. D. Little, "QoS-enabled Video Streaming in Wireless Sensor Networks," in Proc. of 9th IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications, pp.214-217, 15-17 July 2010.

4.       M. A. Hamid, M. Alam, and H. Choong-seon, "Design of a QoS-Aware Routing Mechanism for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks," in Proc. Of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), pp.1-6, Nov. 30 2008-Dec. 4 2008.

5.       H. Pei, X. Yang, and T. Yongdong, "A Robust and Energy-Efficient Approach for Image/Video Dissemination in WSNs," in Proc. of the 5th IEEE Conference on Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC 2008), pp.665-669, 10-12 Jan. 2008.

6.       H. Wang, D. Peng, W Wang, H. Sharif, and H. Chen, "Energy-Aware Adaptive Watermarking for Real-Time Image Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks," in Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '08), pp.1479-1483, 19-23 May 2008.

7.       H. Wang and D. Peng, W. Wang, H. Sharif, and H. Chen, "Image transmissions with security enhancement based on region and path diversity in wireless sensor networks," IEEE Transactions on  Wireless Communications,  vol.8, no.2, pp.757-765, Feb. 2009.

8.       J. F. Mingorance-Puga, G. Macia-Fernandez, A. Grilo, and N. Tiglao, "Efficient multimedia transmission in wireless sensor networks," in Proc. of 6th EURO-NF Conference on  Next Generation Internet (NGI), pp.1-8, 2-4 June 2010.

9.       S. Qaisar, and H. Radha, "A reliability framework for visual sensor networks," in Proc. of Picture Coding Symposium, (PCS 2009), pp.1-4, 6-8 May 2009.

10.    Z. X. Luo, “Parameter Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks with   Normally Distributed Sensor Gains”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering, vol. 2, no. 6, Jan. 2013.

11.    Z. X. Luo, “Parameter Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Decisions Transmitted over Rayleigh Fading Channels”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 6, Jan. 2013.

12.    Z. X. Luo, “Distributed Estimation and Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences, vol. 1, no. 3, Feb. 2013.

13.    Z. X. Luo, “Anti-attack and Channel Aware Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks Deployed in Hostile Environments,” International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, vol. 1, no. 6, Aug. 2012.

14.    Z. X. Luo, “A New Direct Search Method for Distributed Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks,” International Journal of innovative technology and exploring engineering, vol. 1, no. 4, Sept. 2012.

15.    Z. X. Luo and T. C. Jannett, “Performance comparison between maximum likelihood and heuristic weighted average estimation methods for energy-based target
localization in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. of the 2012 IEEE SoutheastCon, Orlando, FL, Mar. 2012.

16.    Z. X. Luo, “A censoring and quantization scheme for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks,” Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol.2,
no.2, 2012

17.    Z. X. Luo, “A coding and decoding scheme for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering, Vol.2, no. 4, Sept. 2012

18.    Z. X. Luo, “Distributed Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks with Heterogeneous Sensors”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, Vol. 1, no.4, Sept. 2012

19.    Z. X. Luo, “Overview of Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, Vol. 1, no. 4, Sept. 2012

20.    Z. X. Luo, and T. C. Jannett, “Modeling Sensor Position Uncertainty for Robust Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Radio and Wireless symposium, Santa Clara, CA, Jan. 2012.

21.    Z. X. Luo, “Robust Energy-based Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks in the Presence of Byzantine Attacks,” International Journal of Innovative Technology and exploring Engineering, vol. 1, no.3, Aug. 2012.

22.    Z. X. Luo, and T. C. Jannett, “Energy-Based Target Localization in Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks, in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Radio and Wireless
symposium, Santa Clara, CA, Jan. 2012.

23.    Z. X. Luo and T. C. Jannett, “Optimal threshold for locating targets within a surveillance region using a binary sensor network,” in Proc. of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 09), Dec. 2009.

24.    Z. X. Luo and T. C. Jannett, “A multi-objective method to balance energy consumption and performance for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. of the 2012 IEEE SoutheastCon, Orlando, FL, Mar. 2012.






Zhenxing Luo

Paper Title:

Survey of Corner Detection Techniques in Image Processing

Abstrac:  Corner detection is important in many applications, such as image registration, mobile robots, and computer vision. This paper discusses several important corner detectors. More recent developments in corner detection techniques are also presented.

     Corner detector, Harris corner detector, SUSAN corner detector, and Contour-based corner detector .


1.       G. Xinting, Z. Wenbo, F. Sattar, R. Venkateswarlu, and E. Sung, "Scale-space Based Corner Detection of Gray Level Images Using Plessey Operator," in Proc. of the Fifth International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 2005, pp. 683-687.
2.       G. Xinting, F. Sattar, and R. Venkateswarlu, "Multiscale Corner Detection of Gray Level Images Based on Log-Gabor Wavelet Transform," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 17, pp. 868-875, 2007.

3.       C. Harris and M. Stephens, “A combined corner and edge detector,” in Proceedings of the 4th Alvey Vision Conference, pp. 147–151, 1988.

4.       Willis and S. Yunfeng, "An algebraic model for fast corner detection," in Proc. of the IEEE 12th International Conference on Computer Vision, 2009, pp. 2296-2302.

5.       S. M. Smith and J. M. Brady, “Susan - a new approach to low level image processing,” International Journal of Computer Vision, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 45–78, 1997.
6.       Z. Li-hui, C. Jie, Z. Juan, and D. Li-hua, "The Comparison of Two Typical Corner Detection Algorithms," in Proc. of the Second International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application, 2008, pp. 211-215.

7.       Z. Ding and A. Ma, "Harris corner detection based on the multi-scale topological feature," in Proc. of the 2011 International Conference on  Computer Science and Network Technology, pp.1394-1397, Dec. 2011.

8.       B. Sirisha and B. Sandhya, "Evaluation of distinctive color features from harris corner key points,"  in Proc. of the 2013 IEEE 3rd International Advance Computing Conference, pp.1287-1292, Feb. 2013.

9.       S. Kim, I. Kweon and W. Lee, "Orientation based multi-scale corner detection for mobile robot application," in Proc. of the 12th International Conference on  Control, Automation and Systems, pp.466-468, Oct. 2012.

10.    M. Awrangjeb, G. Lu, and C. S.  Fraser, "Performance Comparisons of Contour-Based Corner Detectors," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol.21, no.9,
pp.4167-4179, Sept. 2012.

11.    Z. X. Luo, “Distributed Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks with Heterogeneous Sensors”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, Vol. 1, no.4, Sept. 2012

12.    Z. X. Luo, “Overview of Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, Vol. 1, no. 4, Sept. 2012

13.    Z. X. Luo, “Parameter Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks with   Normally Distributed Sensor Gains”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering, vol. 2, no. 6, Jan. 2013.

14.    Z. X. Luo, “Parameter Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Decisions Transmitted over Rayleigh Fading Channels”, International Journal of Soft
Computing and Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 6, Jan. 2013.

15.    Z. X. Luo, “Distributed Estimation and Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences, vol. 1, no. 3, Feb. 2013.

16.    Z. X. Luo, “Anti-attack and Channel Aware Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks Deployed in Hostile Environments,” International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, vol. 1, no. 6, Aug. 2012.

17.    Z. X. Luo, “A New Direct Search Method for Distributed Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks,” International Journal of innovative technology and exploring engineering, vol. 1, no. 4, Sept. 2012.

18.    Z. X. Luo and T. C. Jannett, “Optimal threshold for locating targets within a surveillance region using a binary sensor network,” in Proc. of the International Joint Conferences on Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering (CISSE 09), Dec. 2009.

19.    Z. X. Luo and T. C. Jannett, “A multi-objective method to balance energy consumption and performance for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. of the 2012 IEEE SoutheastCon, Orlando, FL, Mar. 2012.

20.    Z. X. Luo and T. C. Jannett, “Performance comparison between maximum likelihood and heuristic weighted average estimation methods for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks,” in Proc. of the 2012 IEEE SoutheastCon, Orlando, FL, Mar. 2012.

21.    Z. X. Luo, “A censoring and quantization scheme for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks,” Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol.2, no.2, 2012.

22.    Z. X. Luo, “A coding and decoding scheme for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering, Vol.2, no. 4, Sept. 2012.






M. Aziz, Vinod Kumar, Aasha Chauhan, Bharti Thakur

Paper Title:

Power Quality Improvement by Suppression of Current Harmonics Using Hysteresis Controller Technique

Abstrac:  Recently wide spread of power electronic equipment has caused an increase of the harmonic disturbances in the power systems. The nonlinear loads draw harmonic and reactive power components of current from ac mains. Current harmonics generated by nonlinear loads such as adjustable speed drives, static power supplies and UPS. Thus a perfect compensator is required to avoid the consequences due to harmonics. To overcome problems due to harmonics Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) has been considered extensively. SAPF has better harmonic compensation than the other approaches used for solving the harmonic related problems. The performance of the SAPF depends upon different control strategies. This paper presents the performance analysis of SAPF under most important control strategy namely instantaneous real active and reactive power method (p-q) for extracting reference currents of shunt active filters under unbalanced load condition. Detailed simulations have been carried out considering this control strategy and adequate results were presented. These simulation results validate the significance of instantaneous real active and reactive power (p-q) control strategy in achieving an effective harmonic compensation under unbalanced load conditions. In this paper, harmonic control strategy is applied to compensate the current harmonics in the system. A detailed study about the harmonic control method has been used  using shunt active filter technique

    Hysteresis Current control, Instantaneous power (p–q) theory, PI Controller, Shunt Active Power Filter


1.        .H, 1996. “New Trends in Active Filters for Power Conditioning”, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Applications, vol. 32, No 6, Dec., pp 1312-1322.
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3.        Ali Ajami and Seyed Hossein Hosseini, 2006. “Implementation of a Novel Control Strategy for Shunt Active Filter”, ECTI Transactions on Electrical Eng., Electronics, And Communications Vol.4, No.1

4.        .Akagi, Hirofumi. Active Filters for Power Conditioning. In Timothy L.Skvarenina. The Power Electronics Handbook: Industrial Electronics Series. United State of America: CRC Press. Chap. 17:30-63. 2002.

5.        .Peng, F. Z., Akagi, H. and Nabae, A. A Novel Harmonics Power Filter.IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics Specialists Conference. April 11-14. PESC ’88 Record: IEEE. 1988. 1151-1159.

6.        Grady, W. M., Samotyi, M. J. and Noyola, A. H. Survey of Active Line Conditioning Methodologies. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.1990. 5 (3): 1536-1542.

7.        Bhattacharya S. and Divan D., “Synchronous frame based controller implementation for a hybrid series active filter system,” IEEE Conf. On Industry applications, vol.4,(1995):pp. 2531–2540

8.        Lin C. E., Su W. F., Lu S. L, Chen C. L., and Huang C. L., “Operation strategy of hybrid harmonic filter in demand-side system,” IEEE-IAS Annul. Meeting, Industry applications, (1995):pp. 1862–1866.

9.        Dahono P.A, “New hysteresis current controller for single-phase bridge inverters” IET journal on [10]       Power electronics, vol.2 (2009):pp. 585-594

10.     Casaravilla, G, Salvia, A., Briozzo, C. and Watanabe, E. Control Strategies of Selective Harmonics Current Shunt Active Filter. IEE Proc.- Generation, Transmission and Distribution. 2002. 149 (6): 689-694.

11.     Grady, W. M., Samotyi, M. J. and Noyola, A. H. Survey of Active Line Conditioning Methodologies. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.1990. 5 (3): 1536-1542.

12.     Bhattacharya S. and Divan D., “Synchronous frame based controller implementation for a hybrid series active filter system,” IEEE Conf. On Industry applications, vol.4,(1995):pp. 2531–2540

13.     Lin C. E., Su W. F., Lu S. L, Chen C. L., and Huang C. L., “Operation strategy of hybrid harmonic filter in demand-side system,” IEEE-IAS Annul. Meeting, Industry applications, (1995):pp. 1862–1866.

14.     Dahono P.A, “New hysteresis current controller for single-phase bridge inverters” IET journal on Power electronics, vol.2 (2009):pp. 585-594.

15.     Hongyu Li., Fang Zhuo, Zhaoan Wang, Lei W. and Wu L., “A novel time domain current detection  algorihm  for  shunt  active  power  filters”  IEEE  Trans.  power  systems,  vol.20, (2005):pp. 644–651.

16.     Buso S., Malesani L., Mattavelli P. and Veronese R., “Design and fully digital control of parallel active filter for thyristor rectifier to comply with ICE 1000-3-2 standard” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 34, (1998):pp. 508-517






Prabhat Kumar Sinha, Raisul Islam, Chandan Prasad, Mohd. Kaleem

Paper Title:

Analysis of Residual Stresses and Distortions in Girth-Welded Carbon Steel Pipe

Abstrac:   This article, the weld joint suffers various types of weld-induced residual stress fields (hoop and axial) and deformation patterns (axial shrinkage, radial shrinkage). In  this paper  Three-dimensional  finite  element  modeling  of  residual  stresses in  a girth-welded carbon steel  pipe  is  presented   with  an  emphasis  on  modeling  procedures  for  the  global  residual  stress characteristics. To precisely capture the distortions and residual stresses, computational methodology based on three-dimensional finite element model for the simulation of gas tungsten arc welding in thin-walled pipe is presented. Butt-weld geometry with single "V" for a 300 mm outer diameter cylinder of 3 mm thick is used. The complex phenomenon of arc welding is numerically solved by sequentially coupled transient, non-linear thermo-mechanical analysis. The accuracy of both the thermal and structural models is validated through experiments for temperature distribution, residual stresses and distortion. The simulated result shows close correlation with the experimental measurements.

     FEM; welding simulations; Distortions; Residual Stresses; Girth Weld.


1.          Rybicki, E. F., Schmueser,  D. W.,  Stone-sifer,  R. W., Groom, J.  J., Mishler, H. W.  1978. A  finite-element  model  for  residual  stresses and  deflections  in  girth-butt  welded  pipes. Journal  of  Pressure Vessel Technology,  Vol. 100, pp. 256-262..        [2]. Brust,  F.  W., Stonesifer,  R. B. 1981. Effect of weldingarameters  on  residual stresses  in BWR  piping  systems.  EPRI  NP-1743, Project 1174-1, Final Report
2.          Karlsson,  C.  T.  1989.  Finite  element analysis  of temperatures  and stresses  in  a single-pass  butt-welded  pipe-influence of mesh density  and  material  modeling.  Engineering Computations,  Vol.  6, pp.  133-141..

3.          Fujita,  Y.,  Nomoto,  1.,  Hasegawa, H. 1980.  Deformations  and  residual  stresses  in butt  welded  pipes  and  shells. Nav. Archit.  a.OceanEngng.  (Soc.  of Nay.  Archit.  of  Jap.)  18, pp.  164-174, and  IIW-Doc.  X-963-80

4.          Josefson,  B. L. 1983.  Stress  redistribution [12] Y. Dong, J. Hong, C. Tsai and P. Dong. Finite Element modeling of residual stresses in austenitic stainless steel pipe girth welds, Welding Journal, Weld Research Supplement,442 (1997) 449-444.

5.          Yaghia, T. H. Hydea, A. A. Becker, W. Suna and J. A. Williams, Residual stress simulation in thin and thick-walled stainless steel pipe welds including pipe diameter effects, International Journal of Pres-sure Vessels and Piping,83 (11-12) (2006) 864-874.

6.          D. Deng and H. Murakawa, Numerical simulation of temperature field and residual stress in multi-pass welds in stainless steel pipe and comparison with experimental measurements, Computational Material Science,37 (3) (2006) 269-277

7.          B. Brickstad and B. L. Josefson, A parametric study of residual stresses in multi-pass butt-welded stainless steel pipes, International Journal of Pres-sure Vessels and Piping,75 (1) (1998) 11-25.

8.          E. F. Rybicki, D. W. Schmueser, R. W. Stonesifer, J. J. Groom and H. W. Mishaler, A Finite Element model for residual stresses and deflections in girth-butt welded pipes, ASME Journal of Pressure Ves-sel Technology,100 (1978) 256-262.

9.          E. F. Rybicki, P. A. McGuire, E. Merrick and J. Wert, The effect of Pipe thickness on residual stresses due to girth welds. ASME Journal of Pres-sure Vessel Technology, 104 (1982) 204-209

10.       E. F. Rybicki and R. B. Stonesifer, Computation ofresidual stresses due to multi-pass welds in piping system. ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 101 (1979) 49-54.

11.       Y. Dong, J. Hong, C. Tsai and P. Dong. Finite Element modeling of residual stresses in austenitic stainless steel pipe girth welds, Welding Journal, Weld Research Supplement,442 (1997) 449-444.

12.       R. I. Karlsson and B. L. Josefson, Three- dimensional Finite Element analysis of temperature and stresses in single-pass butt-welded pipe. ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology,112 (1990) 76-84.

13.       M. Jonsson and B. L. Josefson, Experimentally determined transient and residual stresses in the butt-welded pipes, Journal of Strain Analysis,23 (1) (1988) 25-31.

14.       L. Karlsson, M. Jonsson, L. E. Lindgren, M. Näss-tröm and L. Troive, Residual stresses and deforma-tions in a welded thin-walled pipe, Proc. ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Conf. (Hawaii, July 1989)PVP-173 (1989) 7-11.

15.       S. Fricke, E. Keim and J. Schmidt, Numerical weld modeling-a method for calculating weld-induced residual stresses, Nuclear Engineering and Design,206 (2-3) (2001) 139-150.

16.       ANSYS-10.0 user manual.

17.       J. Goldak, A. Chakravarti and M. Bibby, A new Finite Element model for welding heat source. Metallurgical Transactions B. 15B (1984) 299-305

18.       L. F. Anderson, Residual stresses and deformations in steel structures,  PhD. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark,(2000)

19.       Vishay Group, Measurement of residual stresses by the hole drilling strain gage method, Technical Note No.TN-503. (www.vishay.com/brands/measurements_group/guide/tn/tn503/503index.htm).

20.       P.J. Bouchard, D. George, J.R. Santisteban, G. Bruno, M. Dutta, L. Edwards, E. Kingston,D.J. Smith, Measurement of the residual stresses in a stainless steel pipe girth weld containing long and short repairs, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping,  82,(4), ( 2005),299–310

21.       W.C. Jiang,B.Y. Wang,J.M. Gong,S.T. Tu, Finite element analysis of the effect of welding heat input and layer number on residual stress in repair welds for a
stainless steel clad plate, Materials & Design, 32(5), (2011),  2851–2857

22.       Chin-Hyung Lee, Jeong-HoonBaek, Kyong-Ho Chang, Bending capacity of girth-welded circular steel tubes, Journal of Constructional Steel Research,75 (2012), 142–151

23.       Chin-Hyung Lee, Kyong-Ho Chang, Jeong-Ung Park, Three-dimensional finite element analysis of residual stresses in dissimilar steel pipe welds, Nuclear Engineering and Design256, (2013),160–168                         






Meghna B. Patel, Ashok R. Patel

Paper Title:

Performance Improvement by Classification Approach for Fingerprint Identification System

Abstrac:    In the world of Information Technology, Information Security is an important factor. For Information Security, authentication plays a vital role. And for Secure Authentication now a days biometric based authentication (‘who you are’, e.g. Fingerprint) replace the Knowledge Based (‘what you know’, e.g. Password) and Object Based Authentication (‘what you have’, e.g. Token). Biometric authentication is the method which identifies or verifies the person based on his/her physiological or behavioral characteristics. The fingerprint is most widely used in biometric world. In Fingerprint Authentication different three levels (The Global or Galton level, The Local Level, The Very Fine Level) of Feature extraction techniques are used at the time of Fingerprint Identification and Verification. In Global or Galton Level identify the flow of ridges and valleys and also extract delta and core point features which classify the fingerprint in different pattern group like arch, tented arch, whorl, left loop and right loop. In tradition biometric recognition approach, the fingerprint template is match with all the template of the database. So, it will take long time for the individual’s authentication. In this paper present an approach which speed up the matching process by classifying the fingerprint template database on various fingerprint pattern group. So, instead of matching process done on whole database it will be done on specific fingerprint pattern group and reduce the no. of matches and improve the performance 3 time faster than the traditional approach.

 Biometrics, classification, identification, verification, minutiae points, singular points. .


1.        Integration of Biometrics with Cryptographic Techniques for Secure Authentication of Networked Data Access by Abanti Cyrus Makori.
2.        Jinwei Gu, Jie Zhou, and Chunyu Yang, “Fingerprint Recognition by Combining Global Structure and Local Cues”, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1952 – 1964, (2006). 

3.        Arpita Gopal, Chandrani Singh, e-World: Emerging Trends in Information Technology, Excel Publication, New Delhi (2009).

4.        Fingerprint Patterns based on Henry Classification System

5.        http://www.crimescene-forensics.com/Fingerprints.html “Basic Fingerprint Pattern”

6.        http://www.slideshare.net/juroc26/fingerprint-classification-slide-1#btnNext

7.        K. Jain, L. Hong, and R.  Bolle, “On-line fingerprint verification”, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 19(4), 1997, pp. 302–314.

8.        Roli Bansal, Priti Sehgal, and Punam Bedi, “Minutiae Extraction from Fingerprint Images - a Review”, IJCSI (International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Volume 8, Issue 5 No 3, September 2011.

9.        D.R. Ashbaugh. Quantitative-Qualitative Friction Ridge Analysis: “An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Ridgeology”. CRC Press, 1999.

10.     A.K. Jain, Y. Chen, and M. Demirkus. “Pores and Ridges: High-Resolution Fingerprint Matching Using Level 3 Features”, PAMI, 29(1):15-27, January 2007. 






Vini Malik, Aakanksha Gautam, Aditi Sahai, Ambika Jha, AnkitaRamvir Singh

Paper Title:

Satellite Image Classification Using Fuzzy Logic

Abstrac:     The intent of the classification process is to categorize all pixels in a digital image into one of several land cover classes, or "themes". In this paper, fuzzy inference  system is developed for classifying the satellite image of (472x546x7 pixel).The input image from the satellite was in form of 7 bands which were then reduced to 3 bands.

   classification, fuzzy logic,if-then rules, land cover, remote sensing .


1.       Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods and Steven L.Eddins “Digital Image Processing Using Matlab,” Pearson Education, Second Impression,2007.
2.       www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/fuzzysets.htm.

3.       Fuzzy set available (online) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuzzy_set‎

4.       Mario. I. Chacon. M “Fuzzy logic for image processing,” Advanced Fuzzy logic Techniques in industrial applications, 2006.

5.       Foody G. M., “Approaches for the production and evaluation of fuzzy land cover classification from remotely-sensed data”, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 17, pp. 1317–1340, 1996.

6.       Fuzzy Mathematics -Wikipedia

7.       Supervised Classification and Unsupervised classification available(online)http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/student/banman5/perry3.html

8.       MATLAB Functions in Fuzzy Logic Toolbox www.mathworks.in/help/fuzzy/functionlist.html‎

9.       Fuzzy Logic Toolbox available (online)http://www.mathworks.in/products/fuzzy-logic/description3.htm

10.    Image Classification and Analysis available (online)www.nrcan.gc.ca/earth-sciences/geography-boundary/remote.../1920






Haval Sardar Kamil

Paper Title:

Analysis of Self Excited Induction Generator Driven By Wind Turbine System Using Current Source Inverter Technology

Abstrac:  This paper describes the simulation model and the harmonics analysis of Current Source Inverters fed RL load. The SEIG fed PWM Current Source Inverter for variable speed wind energy conversion systems are considered for various stand-alone applications. In this paper, the SEIG fed IGBT PWM Inverter for RL load system are clearly explained with the help of MATLAB/SIMULINK models. The generated voltage of wind driven self-excited induction generator (SEIG) is mainly depending on the wind velocity fluctuations, suitable capacitance magnitude and load conditions. The PWM Inverter has interface with the wind driven self-excited induction generator. The main objective of this paper is to extract maximum power from the generator to the grid connected wind energy conversion system. The variable magnitude, variable frequency voltage of the generator can be controlled by choosing the proper modulation index. The simulation analysis of the proposed inverter will be discussed and the total harmonic distortion will be evaluated.

  Self-Excited induction generator (SEIG), Current Source Inverter, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), Wind Turbine, Wind Energy Conversion Application (WECs), Isolated load.


1.        Harish Kumar, Neel Kamal, “Steady State  Analysis of Self-Excited Induction Generator”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-1, Issue-5, November 2011.
2.        Swati Devabhaktuni1* S.V.Jayaram Kumar2, “Modeling and Analysis of Wind turbine Driven Self-Excited Induction Generator Connected to Grid Interface with Multilevel H-Bridge Inverter”, Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy ISSN 2224-3232 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0573 (Online) Vol.2, No.2, 2012.

3.        Palle, M.G. Simoes, F.A. Farret: Dynamic Simulation and Analysis of Parallel Self-Excited Induction Generators for Islanded Wind Farm Systems, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2005, pp. 1099–1106.

4.        Seyoum, C. Grantham and F. Rahman, “Novel Analysis and Modeling of an Isolated Self-ExcitedInduction Generator Taking Iron Loss into Account”, IEE Proc. B, Vol. 136, No. 2, pp. 61-68, March 1989.

5.        D. Basset, F.M. Potter: Capacitive Excitation of Induction Generators: Trans. Amer. Inst.  Electric. Eng., 54, 1935, pp. 540–545.

6.        S. Subramanian and R. Bhuvaneswari, “Optimal Design of Self-excited Cage Induction Generator Using Particle Swarm Optimization”, Iranian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, VOL. 6, NO. 1, WINTER-SPRING 2007.

7.        Rohin M. Hilloowala and Adel M. Sharaf, “A Rule-Based Fuzzy Logic Controller for a PWM Inverter in a Stand-alone Wind Energy Conversion Scheme” IEEE, Transaction on Industry Applications, Vol. 32.No.1 January/February 1996, pp 57- 65.

8.        Dawit S Eyaum Colin Grantham, and Muhammed Fazlur Rahman,”The dynamic characteristics of an isolated self-excited induction generator driven by a wind turbine”, IEEE, Transaction on Industry applications, Vol. 39.No.4, July/August 2003 pp 936 - 944.

9.        T.F. Chan.” Capacitance requirements of self-excited induction generators “, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 8, No. 2, June 1993 pp 304-311.

10.     Andrew Miller, Edward Muljadi and Donald S. Zinger, “A Variable Speed Wind Turbine Power Control”, IEEE, Transaction on Energy Conversion, Vol. 12.No.2 June 1997, pp – 181- 186.

11.     M.Sasikumar,S.ChenthurPandian"Implementation and Characteristics of Induction Generator fed Three Level ZSI for Wind Energy Conversion Scheme" (IJAEST) International  Journal of Advanced Engineering Science and Technologies Vol No. 1, Issue No. 1, 052 – 057.

12.     K. Al Jabri and A. I. Alolah, "Capacitance requirements for isolated self-excited induction generators", IEEE Proc., B, Vol. 137, No. 3, 1990, pp.154-159






Mustafa Jawad Kadhim, D.S.Chavan

Paper Title:

Improvement Fault-ride Through of DFIG Based Wind Turbines by Using a Series Compensation Technology with Emphasis Put on the Mitigation of Voltage Dips

Abstrac:   Low Voltage Ride Through is an important feature for wind turbine systems to fulfill grid code requirements. In case of wind turbine technologies using doubly fed induction generators the reaction to grid voltage disturbances is sensible. Hardware or software protection must be implemented to protect the converter from tripping during severe grid voltage faults. In this paper the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) solution for LVRT of DFIG wind turbines is investigated by simulation results using a detailed converter model considering the switching and appropriate 2 MW wind turbine system parameter. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method the results are compared to a conventional fault ride through of the DFIG using a crowbar circuit. Measurement results on a 22 kW laboratory DFIG test bench show the effectiveness of the proposed control technique.

   Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), fault ride-through and wind energy.


1.          M. Tsili and S. Papathanassiou, “A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms,” Renewable Power generation, IET, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 308–332, Sept. 2009.
2.          S. Seman, J. Niiranen, and A. Arkkio, “Ride-throughanalysis of doubly fed induction wind-power generatorunder unsymmetrical network disturbance,” Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 21, no. 4,pp. 1782–1789, Nov. 2006.

3.          S. Foster, L. Xu, and B. Fox, “Behaviour and protection of doubly-fed induction generators during networkfaults,” in Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 2009. PES ’09. IEEE, July 2009, pp. 1–8.

4.          L. Peng, B. Francois, and Y. Li, “Improved crowbar control strategy of dfig based wind turbines for gridfault ride-through,” Applied Power Electronics Conference
and Exposition, 2009. APEC 2009. Twenty-Fourth Annual IEEE, pp. 1932–1938, Feb. 2009.

5.          W. Zhang, P. Zhou, and Y. He, “Analysis of the by-pass resistance of an active crowbar for doublyfedinductiongenerator based wind turbines under grid faults,” Electrical Machines and Systems, 2008.ICEMS 2008. International Conference on, pp. 2316–2321, Oct. 2008.

6.          J. Morren and S. de Haan, “Short-circuit current of wind turbines with doubly fed induction generator,”EnergyConversion, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 174–180, March 2007.

7.          J. Yang, J. Fletcher, and J. O’Reilly, “A series-dynamic-resistor-basedconverter protection scheme for doubly-fed induction generator duringvarious fault conditions,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 25, no. 2,pp. 422–432, Jun. 2010.

8.          L. H. Hansen, L. Helle, F. Blaabjerg, E. Ritchie, S. Munk-Nielsen, H. Bindner, P. Sørensen, and B. Bak-Jensen, “Conceptual survey of generators and power electronicsfor wind turbines,” Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, Tech. Rep.Risø-R-1205(EN), ISBN 87-550-2743-8, Dec. 2001.

9.          W. Leonhard, Control of Electrical Drives, 2nd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1996.

10.       T. Thiringer and J. Luomi, “Comparison of reduced-order dynamic models of inductionmachines,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 119–126, Feb. 2001.

11.       J. Nielsen and F. Blaabjerg, “A detailed comparison of system topologiesfor dynamic voltage restorers,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 5,pp. 1272–1280,
Sep./Oct. 2005.

12.       M. H. J. Bollen, Understanding Power Quality Problems Voltage Sags andInterruptions. New York: Wiley, 2000.

13.       S. Mahesh,M.Mishra, B. Kumar, and V. Jayashankar, “Rating and designissues of dvr injection transformer,” in Proc. 23rd Annu. IEEE Appl. PowerElectron. Conf. Expo. (APEC), Feb. 2008, pp. 449–455.






Nadiya G. Mohammed

Paper Title:

Overview of Existing Solutions for Fault Ride through Capability Improvement of DFIG used in Wind Turbines

Abstrac:  The growing of wind generation gives arise for new challenges for its integration to the network   tripping of large amount of wind power will lead to serious consequence to the grid . in this paper DFIG performance used   in wind turbine during voltage dip due to fault.  Wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) can regulate easily the reactive power generated in steady state. However, challenges appear when reactive power has to be generated during voltage dips. A survey of the problems associated with voltage dips and solutions for Ride Through operation of this type of system are given.  an overview of different alternatives for Low Voltage Ride Through are presented in this paper.

    Doubly-Fed induction Generator, Low Voltage Ride Trough, Voltage Dip


1.          ELTRA, “Specificatons for connecting wind farms to the transmission network”, 2000.
2.          E.on Netz, “Ergänzede netzansschlussregeln für windenergieanlagen”. Technical report E.on Netz, 2001.

3.          J. Matevosyan, T. Ackermann, S. Bolik, L.Söder “Comparison of International Regulations for Connection of Wind Turbines to the Network” Nordic Wind Power Conference, 1-2 march, 2004

4.          C. Jauch, P. Sørensen, B. Bak-Jensen “International Review of Grid Connection Requirements for Wind Turbines” Nordic Wind Power Conference, 1-2 march, 2004

5.          M.H.J. Bollen , G. Olguin, M. Martins, “Voltage Dips at the Terminals of Wind Power Installations” Nordic Wind Power Conference, march 1-2, 2004
6.          J. Niiranen “Voltage Dip Ride Through of a doublyfed system” World Wide Energy Conference, 2004
7.          T. Thiringer, A. Petersson, T. Petru, “Grid disturbance response of wind turbines equipped with induction generator and doubly-fed induction generator”,Power engineering society annual meeting, Toronto, Canada july, 2003

8.          J. M. Rodriguez, J. L Fernandez, D. Beato, R. Iturbe, J. Usaola, P. Ledesma, j. R. Wilhelmi, “Incidence on power system dynamics of high penetration of fixed speed and doubly fed wind energy systems: study of the Spanish case”, IEEE Trans. in Power Systems., vol. 17,nº 4 pp. 1089–1095, November 2002.






P. Kaveri, G.R.K. Prasad, Fazal Noorbasha

Paper Title:

Router Design Using Cadence Encounter

Abstrac:   As the technology is going on increasing rapidly the electronic component units are also increasing. The initial innovation for the technology growth is the internet communications and also the rapid growth in the chip density slashed the power limits. As there is no advancement in the power storage devices like batteries .so there is a need for the low power design. In all of this innovations router plays a major role in diverting the information from one to many channels, now a days it became the essential  thing The concept of  reconfigurable router to contribute to the creation of the next-generation energy-efficient Internet infrastructure. Through enhancement of the router architectural design, it is expected to reduce average power consumption during network operation. Depending on the traffic there is feasibility for adjusting the frequency. This project has been done in the cadence 90nm technology. System verilog for verification has been done using Synopsys tools

 Low power, Routing, power or phrases in alphabetical order, separated by commas.


1.       Akella, S. Seshan, and A. Shaikh, “An empirical evaluation of widearea internet bottlenecks,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Measure. (IMC), M. Crovella, Ed., New York, 2003, pp. 101–114.
2.       N. Hopper, E. Y. Vasserman, and E. Chan-tin, “How much anonymity does network latency leak,” in Proc. 14th ACM Conf. Comput Commun. Secur. ACM (CCS ’07), 2007.

3.       G. Bissias, M. Liberatore,D. Jensen, and B. Levine, “Privacy vulnerabilities in encrypted HTTP streams,” Privacy Enhancing Technol., pp. 1–11, 2006 [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11767831_1

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Naveen Kumar Malik

Paper Title:

Cognitive Amplifier: A New Approach for Cable Television

Abstrac: Intelligent, Cognitive and Conscious Machines are considered as the future of design in system engineering. These are used in every field of engineering. In this concept paper, a new idea of cognitive amplifier is introduced. Its application in cable television is discussed. The steps of cognitive cycle are discussed. The pictorial diagram of traditional amplifier and cognitive amplifier with its responses is shown to explain the concept. The gain control capability of cognitive amplifier for signal transmission system is shown pictorially. This concept provides flat response for the good quality picture and sound response at all channels.  

   Amplifier, Cognitive amplifier,


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V. Pranava Jyothy, K. Padmavathi

Paper Title:

Removal of High Density Salt and Pepper Noise in Videos through MDBUTMF

Abstrac:  A modified decision based unsymmetrical trimmed median filter (MDBUTM) algorithm for the restoration of gray scale, and color video’s that are highly corrupted by salt and pepper noise is proposed in this paper. In the Transmission of Videos over channel, Video frames are corrupted by salt and pepper noise (Impulse Noise), due to faulty communication systems. The objective of this paper is to implement a better filtering technique that makes the noisy video frames to noise free video frames. The proposed algorithm replaces the noisy pixel by trimmed median value when 0’s and 255’s are present in the selected window and when all the pixel values are 0’s and 255’s then the noise pixel is replaced by mean value of all the elements present in the selected window. This proposed algorithm shows better results than the Standard Median Filter (MF), Decision Based Algorithm (DBA), Modified Decision Based Algorithm (MDBA), and Progressive Switched Median Filter (PSMF). The proposed algorithm is tested against different gray scale and color video frames and it gives better Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Image Enhancement Factor (IEF).

    Median filter, salt and pepper noise, unsymmet--rical trimmed median filter.


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