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Exploring Innovation| ISSN:2277-3878(Online)| Reg. No: 97794/BPL/S/2012| Published by BEIESP| Impact Factor:4.46
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Volume-6 Issue-2: Published on May 30, 2017
Volume-6 Issue-2: Published on May 30, 2017

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Volume-6 Issue-2, May 2017, ISSN:  2277-3878 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

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Gurpreet Singh, Sonia Jassi

Paper Title:

A Review Paper: A Comparative Analysis on Association Rule Mining Algorithms

Abstract: Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The development of Information Technology has generated large amount of databases and huge data in various areas. The research in databases and information technology has given rise to an approach to store and manipulate this precious data for further decision making. Data mining is a process of extraction of useful information and patterns from huge data. It is also called as knowledge discovery process, knowledge mining from data, knowledge extraction or data /pattern analysis. [1] Various algorithms and techniques like Classification, Clustering, Regression, Artificial Intelligence, Neural Networks, Association Rules, Decision Trees, Genetic Algorithm, Nearest Neighbor method etc., are used for knowledge discovery from databases. But here we are going to discuss Association rules mining.

Data, Classification, Clustering, Regression, Artificial Intelligence, Neural Networks, Association Rules, Decision Trees, Genetic Algorithm,


1.       Bharati M. Ramageri, “DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS,” Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Vol. 1 No. 4 301-305
2.       YanxiLiu, “Study on Application of Apriori Algorithm in Data Mining”, IEEE Second International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation, 978-0-7695-3941-6/10, 2010

3.       Wangjie Sun, ZhigaoZheng “An Advanced Design of Data Mining Algorithms”, IEEE 978-1-4244-6943-7/10, 2010

4.       S.P.Latha“Algorithm for Efficient Data Mining”, IEEEInternational Conference on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications, 7695-3050-8/07, 2007

5.       XU Chi, ZHANG Wen Fang “Review of Association Rule Mining Algorithm in Data Mining”978-1-61284-486-2/11/2011 IEEE.
6.       AmolGhoting, Gregory Buehrer  “Knowledge and Cache Conscious Algorithm Design and Systems Support for Data Mining Algorithms”, 1-4244-0910-1/07/2007 IEEE.
7.       Wan Muhammad Zulhafizsyam Wan Ahmad, ShahidaSulaiman, UmiKalsomYusof “Data Mining Technique for Expertise Search in a Special Interest Group Knowledge Portal”, 2011 3rd Conference on Data Mining and Optimization (DMO), 28-29 June 2011

8.       Mining Association Rules Based on Cloud Model and Application in Credit Card Marketing, Yan-Li Zhu, Yu-Fen Wang, Shun-Ping Wang, Xiao-juanGuo, and 2010 Asia-Pacific Conference on Wearable.

9.       Richard Lackes, Chris B6rgermann, Erik Frank, “Determining Factors of Online Auction Prices Analysis with Data Mining Algorithms on the basis of Decision Trees”, 978-1-4244-8845-2/10/ 2010 IEEE

10.    Chyouhwa Chen, Shi-Jinn Horng, Chin-Pin Huang, “Locality sensitive hashing for sampling-based algorithms in association rule mining”, 2011 Elsevier Ltd.





Vandana Bali, Vandhana Thevar, Samit Shivadekar

Paper Title:

Automatic Answer Checking Software

Abstract: An automatic answer checker application that checks and marks written answers similar to a human being. This software application is built to check subjective answers in an online/offline examination and allocate marks to the user after verifying the answer. The admin may insert questions and respective subjective answers in the system. These answers are stored as notepad files. When a user takes the test he is provided with questions and area to type his answers. Once the user enters his/her answers the system then compares this answer to original answer written in database and allocates marks accordingly. Both the answers need not be exactly same word to word. The system consists of in built artificial intelligence sensors that verify answers and allocate marks accordingly as good as a human being.

Semantic Analysis, Subjective answer checking


1.    Assessment of Answers: Online Subjective Examination, <http://>
2.    Assessment of Answers: Online Subjective Examination, <http://>

3.    Assessment of Answers: Online Subjective Examination, <http://>

4.    The Design and Implementation of Subjective Questions Automatic Scor-ing Algorithm in Intelligent Tutoring System, <www.atlantis-press.

5.    The Design and Implementation of Subjective Questions Automatic Scor-ing Algorithm in Intelligent Tutoring System, <www.atlantis-press. com/php/download_paper.php?id=5832>

6.    Introduction to Semantic Analysis





Sathish Kumar V, R. Rathish, N. Balakrishnan, Arun Deva S , Devaraj S. , Gokulraj E, Govindarasu C

Paper Title:

Design and Fabrication of Hydraulic Escalator

Abstract:  AN escalator is a mechanics moving stair way common in place with a lot of foot traffic or where a convention al staircase would be a very long  and tiring to climb. it can be seen malls shopping  complex parking escalator are often installed in pair with an up escalator and adown  escalator adjacent to each other  while single escalator may be changed to go up and down according to the direction of  heavier traffic at different time and day. escalator is similar that of conveyor but can be move  inclined to move from one end of an escalator also include a handrail that moves in conjunction with the stairs. These gears have  chain that loop \around  the gear and run down each side of the escalator. The handrail that rider use for balance and safety on their ride up or down  escalator are powered by the same system that power the faster the shaft revolves the metal ball swung out by centrifugal force a should  the lift speed exceed a predetermined figure the governor  actuates a brake.

 AN escalator, mechanics moving, common, escalator, handrail, centrifugal


1.    Strakosch, George R. Vertical Transportation, Elevators and Escalators, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1983.
2.    "Mitsubishi Electric Escalators Series Z" (PDF). Mitsubishi Elevator Asia Co., Ltd. Retrieved 2014-04-17.

3.    "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 6, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-10.

4.    "ABC7 News - KGO Bay Area and San Francisco News". Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved 2016-10-30.

5.    "Kids Hurt While Wearing Crocs on Escalators - ABC News". 2008-04-21. Retrieved 2016-10-30.

6.    "Experts recommend caution when wearing Crocs - WMC Action News 5 - Memphis, Tennessee". Retrieved 2016-10-30.
7.    Moodie, K. “The King’s Cross Fire: Damage Assessment and Overview of the Technical Investigation.” ‘’Fire Safety Journal’’, Vol. 18, 1992: 13–33.
8.    ”Building Design Editorial: the King’s Cross Inquiry,” ‘’Building Design’’, November 19, 1988: 9.




C. Thiruvasagam, R. Rathish, N. Balakrishnan, K. Karuthapandi, R. Kaviyathevan, S. Kalishwaran, P. Ashok

Paper Title:

Design and Fabrication of Water Jet Machining

Abstract: The engineering and manufacturing departments are constantly on the look of edge. The water jet machining process provides many unique capabilities and advantages that can prove very effective cost. Learning more about water jet technologies will give us an opportunity to put these cost cutting capabilities to work. The water jet washes away the materials that “ERODES” from the surface of the work piece. The crack caused by the water jet impact is exposed to water jet. The extreme pressure and impact of particles in the following stream cause the small crack to propagate until the material cut. Water Jet Machining (WJM) is the process of material removal from a work piece by the application of a high speed stream of abrasive particles carried in a gas medium from a nozzle. The material removal process is mainly by erosion. The WJM will chiefly be used to cut shapes in hard and brittle materials like glass, ceramics etc. Care has been taken to use less fabricated components rather than directly procuring them, because, the lack of accuracy in fabricated components would lead to a diminished performance of the machine.

WJM – Water Jet Machining


1.    Behringer -Plosonka, Catherine A., "Waterjet Cutting - A Technology Afloat on a Sea of Potential", Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. 99, Nov. 1987, pp. 37-41
2.    Steinhauser, John, "Abrasive Waterjets: on the ‘Cutting Edge’ of Technology", Flow Systems, Inc. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 3, Issue 2, Part 2, March-April, 2015 ISSN 2091-2730 292

3.    Medeot, R., "History, Theory and Practice of Hydro demolition", 5th American Waterjet Conference, Aug 1989

4.    Peart, John W., "Lead-Pigmented Paints - Their Impact on Bridge Maintenance Strategies and Costs", Public Roads, Vol. 52 Sept. 1992, pp. 47-51

5.    Ayers, Gary W., "Principles of Waterjet Cutting", Tappi Journal, Vol. 70, Sept 1993, pp. 91-94

6.    Balakrishnan, N & Mayilsamy, K 2013, ‘A study of cotton coated with intumescents flame retardant: Kinetics and effect of blends of used vegetable oil methyl ester’, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, vol.5, pp. 0531211-0531218. ISSN: 1941-7012.

7.    Balakrishnan, N, Mayilsamy, K & Nedunchezhian, N 2015, ‘Experimental investigation of evaporation rate and emission studies of diesel engine fueled with blends of used vegetable oil biodiesel and producer gas’ Thermal Science, vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 1967-1975, ISSN: 0354-9836.





Abhishek Yadav, Rajeswari C

Paper Title:

Data Mining Approach To Find the Interest of People in Purchasing Real Estate

Abstract:  Data mining is extraction of information and consolidates it to helpful data which can be utilized for future calculation and prediction of an event. Subsequently by utilizing data mining methods we are anticipating the interest of individuals in different types of real estate and we are also defining certain pattern can be helpful in purchasing them. In this research we are going to gather individual's enthusiasm for the kind of properties, and other different kinds of information and transform them into data chains utilizing certain data-mining algorithms by means of which we can predict people’s interest about what type of property they are likely going to buy and at what locations they are most likely to buy property. The data has been collected from websites such as In this research two data mining techniques that have been used to classify the data on the basis of certain attributes are Classification (zero classifier) and clustering (simple k means) and on the basis of results several graphs and bar charts are drawn.

Problem Statement:
Understanding the problems of client in real estate field about what properties to buy, what locations to select and how to utilize those Properties and defining different approaches to resolve it using certain data mining concepts and algorithms.


1.     Vishal Venkat Raman, Swapnil Vijay, Sharmila Banu K Identifying Customer Interest in Real Estate Using Data Mining Techniques.
2.     Swati Singh, Gaurav Dubey Finding interest of people in purchasing real estate by using data mining techniques.

3.     Xian Guang LI, Qi Ming LI The Application of Data Mining Technology in real estate market prediction.

4.     Itedal Sabri Hashim Bahia, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad, Iraq A Data Mining Model by Using ANN for Predicting Real Estate Market: Comparative Study.

5.     Ruben D. Jaen, Florida International University Park, PC236 Miami, Fl 33199Data Mining: An Empirical Application in Real Estate Valuation.





Iti Naidu, Deepak Xaxa

Paper Title:

Survey on Video Steganography Algorithms

Abstract: Internet is becoming more and more risky for handling the data against the intruders. Internet carry the text/audio/video/image data in digital form which can be easily tempered or stolen in the internet due to open access to the internet. Therefore it is essential to transfer the data in the internet secretly. Steganogrphy is one of the such tool which can be used for this vary purpose and can be used to exchange and share the secret data. Such secret data may be in the form of text , audio, video or even an image. Using steganography we can hide the secret information in the image, audio file or even in the video file. Hiding the secret data in a video file is known as the video steganography. This paper present a verty useful and extensive servey of video steganography their advantages/ disadvantages.

Steganography, Cryptography, payload, Cover image, Spatial domain, frequency domain.


1.       H. Yuh-Ming and J. Pei-Wun, "Two improved data hiding schemes," in Image and Signal Processing (CISP), 2011 4th International Congress on, 2011, pp. 1784-1787.
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3.       L. Guangjie, L. Weiwei, D. Yuewei, and L. Shiguo, "An Adaptive Matrix Embedding for Image Steganography," in Multimedia Information Networking and Security (MINES), 2011 Third International Conference on, 2011, pp. 642-646.

4.       W. Jyun-Jie, C. Houshou, L. Chi-Yuan, and Y. Ting-Ya, "An embedding strategy for large payload using convolutional embedding codes," in ITS Telecommunications (ITST), 2012 12th International Conference on, 2012, pp. 365-369.

5.       C.S. Lu: Multimedia security: steganography and digital watermarking techniques for protection of intellectual property. Artech House, Inc (2003).

6.       J.J. Chae and B.S. Manjunath: Data hiding in Video. Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Kobe, Japan (1999).

7.       Provos, N., Honeyman, P.: Hide and Seek: An Introduction to Steganography. IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine 1 (2003).

8.       I.J.Cox, J. Kilian, T. Leighton, T.Shamoon: Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia. Proceedings of IEEE Image processing (1997).

9.       J.J. Chae, D. Mukherjee and B.S. Manjunath: A Robust Data Hiding Technique using Multidimensional Lattices. Proceedings of the IEEE Forum on Research and Technology Advances in Digital Libraries, Santa Barbara, USA (1998).

10.    Y. Wang, E. Izquierdo, “High-Capacity Data Hiding in MPEG-2 Compressed Video”, 9th International Workshop on Systems, Signals and Image Processing, UK, 2002.

11.    Hideki Noda, Tomonori Furuta, Michiharu Niimi, Eiji Kawaguchi. Application of BPCS steganography to wavelet compressed video. In Proceedings of ICIP'2004. pp.2147-2150

12.    D.E. Lane “Video-in-Video Data Hiding”, 2007.

13.    R. Kavitha, A. Murugan, "Lossless Steganography on AVI File Using Swapping Algorithm," Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications, International Conference on, vol. 4, pp. 83-88, 2007

14.    Yueyun Shang, "A New Invertible Data Hiding In Compressed Videos or Images," icnc, vol. 5, pp.576-580, Third International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC 2007), 2007

15.    Amr A. Hanafy, Gouda I. Salama and Yahya Z. Mohasseb “A Secure Covert Communication Model Based on Video Steganography,” in Military Communications Conference, 2008. MILCOM. IEEE on 16-19 Nov. 2008.

16.    Cheng-Hung Chuang and Guo-Shiang Lin, “An Optical Video Cryptosystem with Adaptive Steganography”, Proceedings of International Association for Pattern Recognition (IAPR) Conference on Machine Vision Applications (MVA’09), pp. 439-442, Keio University, Yokohama, Japan, May 20-22, 2009. (NSC97-2221-E-468-006 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications, 2007.

17.    M. E. Eltahir, L. M. Kiah, and B. B. Zaidan, "High Rate Video Streaming Steganography," in Information Management and Engineering, 2009. ICIME '09. International Conference on, 2009, pp. 550-553.

18.    Jafar Mansouri, Morteza Khademi,"An Adaptive Scheme for Compressed Video Steganography Using Temporal and Spatial Features of the Video Signal", 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

19.    P. Feng, X. Li, Y. Xiao-Yuan, and G. Yao, "Video steganography using motion vector and linear block codes," in Software Engineering and Service Sciences (ICSESS), 2010 IEEE International Conference on, 2010, pp. 592-595.

20.    Sherly A P and Amritha P P, "A Compressed Video Steganography using TPVD ",International Journal of Database Management Systems ( IJDMS ) Vol.2, No.3, August 2010.

21.    B. Hao, L.-Y. Zhao, and W.-D. Zhong, "A novel steganography algorithm based on motion vector and matrix encoding," in Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN), 2011 IEEE 3rd International Conference on, 2011, pp. 406-409.

22.    ShengDun Hu, KinTak U," A Novel Video Steganography based on Non-uniform Rectangular Partition ",IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering,pp 57-61,Aug.2011.

23.    Z. Rongyue, V. Sachnev, M. B. Botnan, K. Hyoung Joong, and H. Jun,  "An Efficient Embedder for BCH Coding for Steganography," Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 58, pp. 7272-7279, 2012.

24.    Swathi,S.A.K Jilani, " Video Steganography by LSB Substitution Using Different Polynomial Equations" , International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research ( Vol. 2 Issue. 5,sep 2012.

25.    Lakshmi narayanan K,Prabakaran G,Bhavani R, " A High Capacity Video Steganography Based on Integer Wavelet Transform", Journal of Computer Applications ISSN: 0974 – 1925, Volume-5, Issue EICA2012-4, February 10, 2012.

26.    Y. Liu, Z. Li, X. Ma, and J. Liu, "A Robust Data Hiding Algorithm for H. 264/AVC Video Streams," Journal of Systems and Software, 2013.

27.    Prajna Vasudev,Kumar Saurabh ," Video Stegnography Using 32 *32 Vector Quantization of Dct", International Journal of Software & Hardware Research in Engineering Vol. 1 Issue. 3,Nov.2013.




Patience Nafula Wanjala, Gwaya Abednego, Diang’a Stephen

Paper Title:

Integration of Management Information Systems for Effective Construction Projects Monitoring and Control in Kenya

Abstract:  Although monitoring and control of construction projects is carried out in Kenya, outcomes show that the process is not effective, [1]. The research adopts the contingency theory which argues that there’s no one best way for leadership or organization and that the design of the organization and its subsystems must fit with the environment, [2]. It therefore looks  at the present environment which is an ICT oriented one and tries to use it to bridge the gap between monitoring and control of a construction project and its effectiveness by incorporating MIS. Literature was briefly reviewed on the project based nature of the construction industry, why Monitoring and Control was necessary, the challenges it faced that led to it being ineffective and how MIS could help improve its effectiveness. A survey research design was adopted with the use of questionnaires. A sample size of 70 project managers registered with ICPMK was issued with the questionnaires. Out of the 70, 57 were responsive. The analysis in this article dwells more on assessing the significance of monitoring and control of construction projects in Kenya, objective one. Analysis showed that Monitoring and Control was very significant to Kenyan construction projects and was not dependant on the level of experience neither the value of project nor the construction sector handled. It was therefore recommended that Monitoring and Control be performed for all construction projects in Kenya.

 Control, Effective, Integration, MIS, Monitoring.


1.       W. Mwangu and M. A. Iravo, “How Monitoring and Evaluation Affects the Outcome of Constituency Development Fund Projects in Kenya: A Case Study of Projects in Gatanga Constituency,” Int. J. Acad. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 13–31, 2015.
2.       F. Fred and Hersey, “Summary of Contingency Theory,” 1987. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 25-Sep-2015].

3.       R. Vrijhoef and L. Koskela, “A Critical Review of Construction as a Project-based Industry : Identifying Paths Towards a Project- independent Approach to Construction,” pp. 13–24, 2013.

4.       Chat, “Construction Project Manager Roles & Responsibilities,” 2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 20-Aug-2015].

5.       R. H. Neale and D. E. Neale, Construction Planning. Thomas Telford, 1989.

6.       R. O. Onsare, “CHALLENGES FACING KENYA’S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY,” 2011. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 26-Aug-2015].

7.       KLR, “The Public Procurement and disposal act,” Revis. Ed., 2010.

8.       M. Nasrun and M. Nawi, “Impact of Fragmentation Issue in Construction Industry : An Overview 3 Discussions : Fragmentation Issue,” vol. 9, pp. 1–8, 2014.

9.       S. a. Assaf and S. Al-Hejji, “Causes of delay in large construction projects,” Int. J. Proj. Manag., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 349–357, 2006.

10.    Baccarini, “The concept of project complexity a review,” Int. J. Proj. Manag., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 201–204, 1996.

11.    J. (Professor) Bennett, International construction project management : general theory and practice. Oxford  Angleterre: Butterworth Heinemann, 1991.

12.    G. I. Idoro, “Influence of the Monitoring and Control Strategies of Indigenous and Expatriate Nigerian Contractors on Project Outcome,” J. Constr. Dev. Ctries., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 49–67, 2012.

13.    B. Dictionary, “Monitoring Definition,” 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 03-Sep-2015].

14.    M&E Studies, “Characteristics of a Good Monitoring &amp; Evaluation System | Attributes | Monitoring and Evaluation Studies,” M&E Studies, 2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 01-Sep-2016].

15.    Solutions, “Deloitte on Africa African Construction Trends Report 2014,” 2015.

16.    M. Geoffrey Otonde and M. Yusuf, “FACTORS INFLUENCING PROJECT PERFORMANCE AMONG KENYAN UNIVERSITIES IN KISUMU COUNTY,” Int. J. Innov. Soc. Sci. Humanit. Res., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1–12, 2015.

17.    R. Navon, “AUTOMATED PRODUCTIVITY CONTROL OF LABOR AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION,” in The 25th National Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, 2008, pp. 29–32.
18.    W. Robert, Effective Project Management :: Traditional. Agile. Extreme., 6th ed. 1999.
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21.    S. H. Al-Jibouri, “Monitoring systems and their effectiveness for project cost control in construction,” Int. J. Proj. Manag., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 145–154, Feb. 2003.

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25.    J. S. Bohn, “Benefits and Barriers of Construction Project Monitoring using Hi-Resolution Automated Cameras,” Georgia Institute of Technology, 2009.

26.    V. P. Raja, “Monitoring and Controlling the Construction Project by Project Management Information System ( PMIS ),” vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 893–904, 2015.

27.    X. Fuji, “Convergent document technology: an IT manager’s guide,” Media Resour. Cent., no. 218, 2002.

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Mohini M. Ade, S. S. Asole

Paper Title:

Survey of Routing Protocols Performance with Mobility Models in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc Network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. Many routing protocols are proposed in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. There is a necessity to investigate the performance of MANETs under a number of different protocols with various mobility models. In this paper we are considering the performance evaluation of different routing protocols (AODV, DSR, DSDV, ZRP) in the presence of different network loads and differing mobility models.  In this paper we were doing the study of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid protocols with various mobility models. This paper focuses on the evaluation of performance with respect to various parameters such as packet delivery ratio, average end to end delay, jitter and throughput. In this our finding show that the Influence of Mobility Models on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Networks using NS-2 simulator.

MANET, routing protocols, mobility model, NS-2.


1.       Rahman A, Zukarnian  Z. Performance comparison of AODV, DSDV, I-DSDV routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks. European Journal of Scientific Research 2009; 31:566–76.
2.       Harminder Kaur, Harsukhpreet Singh, Anurag Sharma, “ Geographic Routing Protocol: A Review”  International Journal of Grid and Distributed Computing Vol. 9, No. 2 (2016), pp.245-254.

3.       Mittal S, Pinki. Performance evaluation of AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA routing protocols. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Vol.2 Issue 2, February 2012, ISSN 2231 5780

4.       Adam Macintosh, Ming FeiSiyau, Mohammed Ghavami,” Simulation study on the impact of the transmission power on the performance of routing protocols under different Mobility Models”, International journal on applications of graph theory in wireless ad hoc networks and sensor networks (GRAPH-HOC) Vol.3, No.3, September 2014.

5.       Kumar S, Sharma SC, Suman B, “ Impact of mobility models with different scalability of networks on manet routing protocols. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research” Volume 2, Issue 7, July-2011 ISSN 2229-5518.

6.       Said SM, El-Emary IMM, Kadim S, “ Comparative study between the performance of proactive and reactive mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) routing protocols with varying mobility.Scientific Research and Essays” Vol. 6(6), pp. 1256-1274, 18 March, 2011.

7.       Vivek Thapar, Bindiya Jain, Varsha Sahni,”Performance Analysis of Ad hoc Routing Protocols Using Random Waypoint Mobility Model in Wireless Sensor”, Ad Hoc Networks, May 2013.

8.       Gouda BS, Petro D, Shital RK. “ Scenario-based performance evaluation of proactive, reactive and hybrid routing protocols in Manet using random waypoint model”, 978-1-4799-8084-0/14 $31.00 © 2014 IEEE 2014 International Conference on Information Technology.

9.       Apurva Sharma, Dr. Gurpreet, Er.Jaswinder Singh. “ MOBILITY MODELS FOR MANET: MATHEMATICAL PERSPECTIVE”. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Applied Sciences. Vol. 2 | No. 5 | May 2013.  

10.    Abdul Karim Abed , Gurcu Oz, Isik Aybay. “  Influence of mobility models on the performance of data dissemination and routing in wireless mobile ad hoc networks.” Computers and Electrical Engineering 40 (2014) 319–329.